Aside things where agreement is not easy to come by

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aside things where agreement is not easy to come by) = The ASEAN Way No binding commitments guiding accession, two-tiered functioning, possibility to opt-out from common activities Structure Dense pattern of informal and formal meetings of leading officials Increasingly institutionalized following various crises Secretary-General – weak, in charge of a small secretariat Membership expansion Originally: Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand + Brunei (1984) India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Papua New Guinea rejected + Vietnam (1995) + Laos, Myanmar (1997) + Cambodia (1999) Evolution First 20 years focused on stability, peace, security 1971: Zone of Peace and Neutrality – attempt to avoid getting implicated in the Cold War 1978: Vietnam invades Cambodia – the norm of non-intervention threatened 1990s: responding to globalization 18
[email protected] o Establishment of ARF (1994) o ASEAN Free Trade Area o Membership in APEC o 4 new members o South East Asian Nuclear Weapons Free Zone (1995) New roles o Facilitating solution to territorial disputes o Emergency preparedness schemes (epidemics, catastrophes, …) o Capacity to address non-traditional threats Economic cooperation Regulation and reinforcement of outward aiming growth strategy Need to unite more: loss of FDI to China Economic coop. thwarted by reluctance to integrate, economic disparity 1997 crisis exposed shortcomings Surveillance Process established: negotiation and commenting on domestic policies of each other ASEAN+3 Creation of AFTA (2002) ASEAN, ASEAN+3, ASEAN+6 ASEAN+3: China, ROK, Japan ASEAN+6: China, ROK, Japan, Australia, NZ, India Also cooperation with the EU, Canada, US, Pakistan, Russia,… A+3 institutionalized (1999) o Covers range of issues o Initiated East Asian Summit (+6) Developing ASEAN’s institutions 2007: ASEAN Charter o ASEAN Community (2015) Economic, security and socio-cultural comm. o Legal personality o Commitment to human rights and democracy o The ASEAN Regional Forum First Asia’s multilateral security institution – Cooperative security Problem: securing cooperation of China China concerned that neighbours would team up and advance against Chinese interests in the case of Taiwan and territorial disputes China reluctant to share information about its doctrine and deployment ASEAN members originally reluctant too, then changed their position Spearheaded by small and middle powers 26 participants: Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Canada, China, European Union, India, Indonesia, Japan, Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russian Federation, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor Leste, United States, and Vietnam 19
[email protected] Decisionmaking based on consensus Small secretariat founded in 2004 2 bodies: ARF-ISIS and CSCAP

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