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aside things where agreement is not easy to come by) = The ASEAN WayNo binding commitments guiding accession, two-tiered functioning, possibility to opt-out from common activitiesStructureDense pattern of informal and formal meetings of leading officialsIncreasingly institutionalized following various crisesSecretary-General – weak, in charge of a small secretariatMembership expansionOriginally: Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand+ Brunei (1984)India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Papua New Guinea rejected+ Vietnam (1995)+ Laos, Myanmar (1997)+ Cambodia (1999)EvolutionFirst 20 years focused on stability, peace, security1971: Zone of Peace and Neutrality – attempt to avoid getting implicated in the Cold War1978: Vietnam invades Cambodia – the norm of non-intervention threatened1990s: responding to globalization18
[email protected]oEstablishment of ARF (1994)oASEAN Free Trade AreaoMembership in APECo4 new membersoSouth East Asian Nuclear Weapons Free Zone (1995)New rolesoFacilitating solution to territorial disputesoEmergency preparedness schemes (epidemics, catastrophes, …)oCapacity to address non-traditional threatsEconomic cooperationRegulation and reinforcement of outward aiming growth strategyNeed to unite more: loss of FDI to ChinaEconomic coop. thwarted by reluctance to integrate, economic disparity1997 crisis exposed shortcomingsSurveillance Process established: negotiation and commenting on domestic policies of each otherASEAN+3Creation of AFTA (2002)ASEAN, ASEAN+3, ASEAN+6ASEAN+3: China, ROK, JapanASEAN+6: China, ROK, Japan, Australia, NZ, IndiaAlso cooperation with the EU, Canada, US, Pakistan, Russia,…A+3 institutionalized (1999)oCovers range of issuesoInitiated East Asian Summit (+6)Developing ASEAN’s institutions2007: ASEAN CharteroASEAN Community (2015)Economic, security and socio-cultural comm.oLegal personalityoCommitment to human rights and democracyoThe ASEAN Regional ForumFirst Asia’s multilateralsecurity institution – Cooperative securityProblem: securing cooperation of ChinaChina concerned that neighbours would team up and advance against Chinese interests in the case of Taiwan and territorial disputesChina reluctant to share information about its doctrine and deploymentASEAN members originally reluctant too, then changed their positionSpearheaded by small and middle powers26 participants: Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Canada, China,European Union, India, Indonesia, Japan, Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russian Federation, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor Leste, United States, and Vietnam19
[email protected]Decisionmaking based on consensusSmall secretariat founded in 20042 bodies: ARF-ISIS and CSCAP