Below, Chevron uses an advocacy ad to communicate its position on the development of renewable energy. Bridgestone uses a pioneering ad to inform readers about how it makes its products.
A competitive institutional ad by dairy farmers tries to increase demand for milk, and a reminder institutional ad by the U.S. Army tries to keep the attention of the target market. Three steps in developing the advertising program: 1. Identify the target audience. All aspects of the advertising program will be influenced by the characteristics of the prospective consumer. 2. Specify the advertising objectives …this helps in selecting the promotional tools. 3. Set the advertising budget (Remember “Objective and Task” budgeting theory from chapter 1 7) Message Content Most advertisements contain both informational and persuasive elements. Fear appeals suggest to the consumer that he or she can avoid some negative experience through the purchase and use of a product or service, a change in behavior, or a reduction in the use of a product. In contrast, sex appeals suggest to the audience that the product will increase the attractiveness of the user. Humorous appeals imply either directly or subtly that the product is more fun or exciting than competitors' offerings. Using celebrities : One potential shortcoming of this form of advertising is that the spokesperson's image may change to be inconsistent with the image of the company or brand.
Selecting the Right Media Every advertiser must decide where to place its advertisements. The alternatives are the advertising media , the means by which the message is communicated to the target audience. Newspapers, magazines, radio, and TV are examples of advertising media. This decision on media selection is related to the target audience, type of product, nature of the message, campaign objectives, available budget, and the costs of the alternative media. Figure 18-2 shows the distribution of the $198 billion spent on advertising among the many media alternatives. 23 The American Association of Advertising Agencies reports that high-quality TV commercials typically cost about $323,000 to produce a 30-second commercial. One reason for the high costs is that as companies have developed global campaigns, the need to shoot commercials in several locations has increased. Audi recently filmed commercials in Germany, Australia, and Morocco. Actors are also expensive: Compensation for a typical TV ad is $17,000. Television is a valuable medium because it communicates with sight, sound, and motion. Print advertisements alone could never give you the sense of a sports car accelerating from a stop or cornering at a high speed. In addition, network television reaches 96.7 percent of all households — 114.7 million — more than any other advertising option. There are also many opportunities for out-of-home TV viewing as televisions can be seen in many bars, hotels, offices, airports, and on college campuses.
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