Social structure in global perspective postmodern

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Social Structure in Global Perspective: Postmodern Life Images Evident in how popular any visual medium has become Our postmodern knowledge of what is real is constrained by the images we can construct Just like the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis says about language, our experience of reality is always mediated through representations of reality through signs, symbols and words. Postmodern theorists say “the map precedes the territory”
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Social Structure in Global Perspective: Postmodern Life Choices Postmodern societies’ reality isn’t given: it is negotiated Unlike societies w/ mechanical solidarity, we have to make major life choices frequently Choose what to eat, wear, do… But also more important things like your partner, your school, your career…
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Social Structure in Global Perspective: Postmodern Life Networks We live in a globally interconnected world Most of the stuff we use/buy every day comes from the other side of the world Hamburger. Miracle.
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Bureaucracy: Characteristics of a Bureaucracy Bureaucracy: a formal organization built on the principle of maximum efficiency Ideal type: an abstract model of the essential characteristics of a phenomenon One problem: Perfect bureaucracies don’t exist. 5 Characteristics of a Bureaucracy: Division of Labor Hierarchy of Authority Written Rules and Regulations Impersonality Employment Based on Technical Qualifications
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Positive Consequences Negative Consequences Individual Organization Division of labor Efficiency on a large- scale Limits knowledge Communication barriers Hierarchy of authority Clarifies who’s in command Deprives employees of a voice in decision- making Permits concealment of mistakes Written rules and regulations Workers know what’s expected of them Stifles initiative & imagination Goal displacement Impersonality Reduces bias Feelings of alienation / isolation Discourages loyalty to organization Employment based on technical qualifications Discourages favoritism & reduces petty rivalries Discourages ambition to improve elsewhere Inhibits innovative thinking
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goal displacement : overzealous conformity to official regulations of a bureaucracy Especially when we lose sight of the larger principle from which the rule was created Example: teaching the test, not the material
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Bureaucracy: Bureaucratization as a Way of Life Bureaucratization : the process of by which a group, organization, or social movement increasingly relies on technical-rational decision making in the pursuit of efficiency emphasizes objective, concrete, measurable methods The spread of bureaucratization McDonaldization: The process by which the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control shape organization and decision making, in the United States and around the world.
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Bureaucracy: Bureaucratization as a Way of Life Bureaucratization  Oligarchy : Danger: bureaucratization overwhelms every other value and
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