d. Steps: 1) Identify or name the process being studied for improvement. 2) Define the scope of the process; what is included as where is the beginning and end. 3) Then identify the SIPOC elements. Suppliers Inputs Processes Outputs Customers • Doctors • Patients • Family • GPO • Paper prescription • Fax • Telephone • Digital order • Customer at counter • Filling • Checking • Meds • Dosage info • Instructions • Phone & desk service • Patient • Insurance • Regulator Pharmacy workflow diagram Pharmacy Analysis SIPOC
Page 74 Draft 5. 5.2016 4) In terms of how to record this information set up a space or paper for preparation of the SIPOC table. This could be a wall area if it is to be done with a team of people. 5) It is also useful to include a high level process map. Two additional elements are often added: constraints or limits on the process and measures or how the process is measured. 6) Review with personnel directly involved: staff, customers, stakeholders and others. 7) Revise and prepare the final version.
Page 75 Draft 5. 5.2016 44. Six Sigma a. Definition: Six Sigma is an improvement approach incorporating many tools with a particular focus on quality as well as statistical control over processes. Based on data, improvement particularly comes from reducing unwanted variability. It shares many attributes with the Lean Approach (see Section 24). Six Sigma is a registered service mark and trademark of Motorola Inc. Other early adopters of Six Sigma who achieved well-publicized success include General Electric. By the late 1990s, about two- thirds of Fortune 500 organizations had begun Six Sigma initiatives with the aim of reducing costs and improving quality. 3 Training and certification in Six Sigma is available from many organizations. The term “six sigma” comes from a statistical reference to variability. A standard deviation is used to compute variability and is often labeled with the Greek letter sigma ( σ ). A good design results in only 3.4 defects out of a million, which is 6 standard deviations or Six Sigma, although this is not always achieved. Six Sigma focuses on understanding and controlling a process with the use of quantitative tools. It makes a nice fit with research projects because both focus on understanding processes and often use extensive data analysis . Six Sigma’s ideas offer the r esearcher opportunities for quality improvement in both conducting research and producing improved results. For example, Six Sigma is used to speed up the completion of the development of a medical device and it is used to track changes in quality and to reduce laboratory errors. Many of the methods covered in this handbook are commonly referenced as part of Six Sigma as well as Lean or the Toyota Production Process. As a result of the overlap of Six Sigma and Lean, some refer to the “ Lean Six Sigma ” (LSS) method. The following are tools which are particularly part of Six Sigma but less often part of Lean.
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