Workers spend on maternity or paternity leave nor do

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workers spend on maternity or paternity leave, nor do they record information that could shed light on the timing or delays in taking family leave. Nevertheless, because the CPS has not changed between 1994 and 2015, even if the total number of people on maternity or pa- ternityleaveisbiased,theabsenceofanytrendin maternity leave over time is likely accurate. Public Health Implications The medical literature is overwhelmingly positive about the impact of allowing parents to spend time with newborn children. Paid maternity and paternity leave laws are designed to ensure society and individuals receive these medical and social bene fi ts. Unfortunately, the bene fi ts do not appear to be growing in the United States. Maternity leave has stagnated over the past 2 decades; at the same time, the economy has grown 66%. Three states (California, New Jersey, and Rhode Island) have enacted and imple- mented paid maternity leave legislation in an attempt to boost the ability of parents to bond with infants. These 3 states in 2015 encom- passed 16.1% of the female labor force. If the laws were effective, some impact should be seen in national data. As there is no visual or statistical evidence of an in- crease in the number of women on ma- ternity leave, public health of fi cials, pediatricians, and child advocates should determine why the legislation did not work as intended. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would like to thank Robert Sege, MD, PhD, and Paul A. Meyers, MD, for their helpful suggestions. HUMAN PARTICIPANT PROTECTION No protocol approval was needed for this study because secondary data were used and no human participants were involved. REFERENCES 1. Kamerman SB. From maternity to parental leave policies: women s health, employment, and child and family well-being. J Am Med Womens Assoc . 2000;55(2): 96 99. 2. McGovern P, Dowd B, Gjerdingen D, Moscovice I, Kochevar L, Lohman W. Time off work and the post- partum health of employed women. Med Care . 1997; 35(5):507 521. 3. Borrell C, Palencia L, Muntaner C, Urquia M, Malmusi D, O Campo P. In uence of macrosocial policies on women s health and gender inequalities in health. Epidemiol Rev . 2014;36:31 48. 4. Chatterji P, Markowitz S. Family leave after childbirth and the mental health of new mothers. J Ment Health Policy Econ . 2012;15(2):61 76. 5. Guendelman S, Pearl M, Graham S, Hubbard A, Hosang N, Kharrazi M. Maternity leave in the ninth month of pregnancy and birth outcomes among working women. Womens Health Issues . 2009;19(1):30 37. 6. Ruhm CJ. Parental leave and child health. J Health Econ . 2000;19(6):931 960. 7. Clark R, Hyde JS, Essex MJ, Klein MH. Length of maternity leave and quality of mother infant interactions. Child Dev . 1997;68(2):364 383. 8. Guendelman S, Kosa JL, Pearl M, Graham S, Goodman J, Kharrazi M. Juggling work and breast- feeding: effects of maternity leave and occupational characteristics. Pediatrics . 2009;123(1):e38 e46.
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