trust vs mistrust Infancy under 2 years autonomy vs shamedoubt toddlerhood 2 4

Trust vs mistrust infancy under 2 years autonomy vs

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- trust vs. mistrust (Infancy – under 2 years) - autonomy vs. shame/doubt (toddlerhood – 2-4 years) - initiative vs. guilt (early childhood 5-8 years) - industry vs inferiority (9 – 12 years) - Identity vs. role confusion (13- 19 years) - intimacy vs. isolation (20- 39years) - generativity vs. stagnation (40- 59 years) - ego integrity vs. despair (60 and above) Operant-Learning Theory: B.F. Skinner Who is most closely associated with this theory? What does this theory seek to explain? - cause and effect - Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant
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conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence (Skinner, 1938). • Neutral operants: responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated. • Reinforcers: Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative. • Punishers: Responses from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior. - Positive Reinforcement: Presenting the subject with something that it likes. e.g., Skinner rewarded his rats with food pellets.
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