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5 carry out the random assignment of subjects to

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5. Carry out the random assignment of subjects to groups in a completely randomized experiment. 6. Recognize the placebo effect. Recognize when the double-blind technique should be used. 7. Recognize a block design and when it would be appropriate. Know when a matched pairs design would be appropriate and how to design a matched pairs experiment. 8. Explain why a randomized comparative experiment can give good evidence for cause-and-effect relationships.

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Chapter 5: Producing Data Section 5.1: Introduction to Producing Data Knowledge Objectives: Students will: Explain the difference between an observational study and an experiment . Construction Objectives: Students will be able to: Give some examples of studies, and classify each as either an observational study or an experiment. Vocabulary: Statistics – science of collecting, organizing, summarizing and analyzing information to draw conclusions or answer questions Information – data Data – fact or propositions used to draw a conclusion or make a decision Anecdotal – data based on casual observation, not scientific research Descriptive statistics – organizing and summarizing the information collected Inferential statistics – methods that take results obtained from a sample, extends them to the population, and measures the reliability of the results Population – the entire collection of individuals Sample – subset of population (used in the study) Placebo – innocuous drug such as a sugar tablet Experimental group – group receiving item being studied Control group – group receiving the placebo Double-blind – experiment where neither the receiver of the item or the giver of the item knows who is in each group Variables – characteristics of individuals within the population Key Concepts: Observational Studies Draws inferences about the possible effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside the control of the investigator Observational studies infer possible causes (basis of future experiments), but cannot determine cause and effect Experiments may be beyond the control of the investigator for a variety of reasons: A randomized experiment would violate ethical standards The investigator may simply lack the requisite influence A randomized experiment may be impractical From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Homework: none Experiments Method of investigating causal relationships (cause and effect) among variables, or to test a hypothesis Often the experimenter is interested in the effect of some process or intervention (the "treatment") on some objects (the "experimental units"), which may be people, parts of people, groups of people, plants, animals, etc. A controlled experiment generally compares the results
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