Chap 4 through 6 notes

# 3 transmission some forms of matter such as glassair

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3. Transmission: some forms of matter such as glass/air transmit light, which means allowing it to pass through. 4. Reflection/scattering: Light can bounce off matter, leading to reflection (when bouncing all in the same direction) or scattering (when the bouncing is more random) Materials that transport light are said to be transparent, materials that absorb light are opaque (ex: red glass transmits red light but absorbs other colors, while a green lawn reflects (scatters) green light but absorbs all other colors) A particle of matter can sit still or it can move from one place to another Peaks (water is higher than average), troughs (the water is lower than average) Wavelength (distance from one peak to the next, or trough to trough); frequency (the # of peaks passing by any point each second); cycles per second (the up-down “cycles” of the passing waves) The speed of the waves tells us how fast their peaks travel across the pond. Wavelength X frequency = speed Fields associated with forces, such as electric and magnetic fields, describe the strength of the force that any particle would experience at any point in space Light waves are vibrations of both electric and magnetic fields caused by the motions of

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charged particles. Light is an electromagnetic wave. The speed of light is about 300,000 kilometers per second. The longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency, and vice versa. Photons: individual “pieces” that have properties of both particles and waves. Each photon carries a specific amount of radiative energy Light is both a wave and a particle The spectrum of visible light that splits into the rainbow of color is only a tiny part of the complete range of light's wavelengths. (differs only from other light forms in wavelength and frequency of photons) The complete spectrum of light is the electromagnetic spectrum, light itself is often called electromagnetic radiation. Visible light has wavelengths ranging from about 400 nanometers at the blue/violet end and 700 nanometers at the red end. Light with wavelengths somewhat longer than red light is called infrared, because it lies beyond the red end of the rainbow. Radio waves are the longest wavelength light. The region near the border between infrared and radio waves, where wavelengths range from micrometers to millimeters is sometimes given the name microwaves. Light with wavelengths somewhat shorter than blue light is called ultraviolet, b/c it lies beyond the blue/violet end of the rainbow. Light with even shorter wavelengths is called x rays, the shortest being gamma rays. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus at the center of an atom. Chapter 6 The eyes contain three basic components (lens, pupil, retina). The retina contains light sensitive cells (called cones/rods) that, when triggered by light, send signals to the brain via the optic nerve.
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