They convert letters and patterns of letters into sounds and blend them to

They convert letters and patterns of letters into

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They convert letters and patterns of letters into sounds and blend them to pronounce the word - Most effective when children are reading phonetically regular one-syllable words - Decoding by analogy - Children apply their knowledge of phonograms to analyze the structure of an unfamiliar word - They use known words to recognize unfamiliar ones - Apply phonic rules - To identify unfamiliar words - Daily opportunities for children to apply the phonic strategies and skills they’re learning in authentic reading and writing activities - Ratio of time spent on real reading and writing to time spent on phonics instruction should be 3 to 1 - Without meaningful application of what they’re learning, phonics instruction is often ineffective - Phonics instruction begins in kindergarten when children learn to connect consonant and short vowel sounds to the letters
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Explicit Instruction - Teachers present mini lessons on phonics to the whole class or small groups of students - Follow mini lesson format, present information about a phonics strategy or skill, demonstrate how to use it, present words for students to use in guided practice - Teachers use these activities to provide guided practice opportunities for students to manipulate sounds and read/writ words: - Sort objects, pictures, and word cards according to a phonics concept - Write letters or words on small whiteboards - Arrange magnetic letters or letter cards to spell words - Make class charts of words representing phonics concepts, such as the 2 sounds of g or the -ore phonogram - Make a poster or book of words representing a phonics concept - Locate other words exemplifying the spelling pattern in books students are reading Application Activities - Participating in teacher directed activities - In interactive writing, children segment words into sounds and take turns writing letters and sometimes whole words on a chart - Teachers help children correct errors - Take advantage of teachable moments to view consonant and vowel sounds and spelling patterns - Handwriting skills and rules for capitalization and punctuation - Making words and word sorts - Other activities children do to apply what they’re learning about phoneme-grapheme correspondences, word families and phonics rules Assessing Students Phonics Knowledge - Using a combination of tests, observation, and reading and writing samples - Often use a test to screen children at the beginning of the school year, monitor progress midyear, document achievement at end of the year - When children aren’t making expected progress - Administer test to diagnose the problem and plan for instruction - Teachers observe children to see how they’re applying phonics strategies and skills they’re learning - They can show what they’ve learned through interactive writing, making words and word sort activities - As teachers listen to children read aloud or read children’s writing - They analyze their errors to determine which phonics concepts are confusing or those they’ don’t understand The Role of Phonics in a Balanced Literacy Program -
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