Moral Objectivism: Viewed based on their cultures views, or personal beliefs➢Moral absolutism ○Certain categories of action that are always right or always wrong■Example: Clarissa, a moral absolutist, might say, “ It is always wrong for ahusband to divorce his wife, unless she asks for a divorce”➢Moral Particularism: ○Specific actions are right or wrong, but there are always exceptions to any moral rule■Example: Melinda, a moral particularist, would say, “ there is no way to generalize. We have to ask a lot of detailed questions about John’s case before we make a decision”
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Intro into EthicsProfessor: Jacob Affolter➢A person can be a moral objectivist but not a moral absolutist➢Moral significance○Basic contrast: Morally significant vs. morally indifferent■Moral significance: A particular action is morally right or morally wrong●Clarissa says, “albert is morally obligated to spend that money on his children, not on charity”●Darien says, “albert is morally obligated to spend that money on charity, not his children”○Moral indifference: In a particular case, it is neither morally right nor morally wrong to take a particular action➢Tolerance○Basic contrast: obligated to tolerate, not obligated to tolerate■Obligated to tolerate: it would be morally wrong not to let another person take the action●Clarissa: We out to allow michael to divorce is wife, even though itis wrong to do so■Not obligated to tolerate: it is morally acceptable to stop a person from making an action○A person can believe in moral objectivism and also believe in very strong obligations to tolerate objectively wrong behaviour➢A person can be a moral objectivist and still believe that:○There are no absolute moral rules○There are a wide range of actions that are morally indifferent○We should tolerate a very wide range of actions➢A person can be a cultural relativist and still believe that:○There are absolute moral rules○There are very few actions that are morally indifferent○Members of our culture should tolerate very few actions that violate the standards of our culture➢Arguments in Favour○Cultural relativism does not fully recognize the injustice done to people○Cultural relativism tends to undermine necessary societal rules○On the surface, this is the way that people normally talk about morality○First objection■Cultural relativism leads to obviously false conclusions●If cultural relativism were true, then slavery was morally acceptable for white alabamans in 1800○Second objection■Cultural relativism makes progress impossible●If culutral relativism is ture, then slavery was morally acceptable for white alabamans in 1800■Personal Theory●Underlying assumption: A belief that progress is inevitable○Third Objection■Ethical subjectivism does not account for disagreement●When hohn do says that something is right and richard roe says
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