Age cohorts are influenced by the historical context in which they live and can

Age cohorts are influenced by the historical context

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Age cohorts are influenced by the historical context in which they live and can vary among generations. People born in the same cohort have similar experiences, ideologies, orientations, attitudes, and values as well as expectations regarding the timing of life transitions. Highlighted the importance of cohorts and the associated socioeconomic and political impact on how individuals age. Person-Environment-Fit Theory: Theorized by Lawton .
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Capacity to function in one’s environment is an important aspect of successful aging, and that function is affected by ego strength, motor skills, biologic health, cognitive capacity, and sensori-perceptual capacity. , as well as external conditions imposed by the environment. Functional capacity influences the ability to adapt to the environment. Those functioning at lower levels can tolerate fewer environmental demands. Gerotranscendence Theory: Theorized by Tornstam. Aging individuals undergo a cognitive transformation from a materialistic, rational perspective toward “oneness” with the universe. Characteristics of a successful transformation : A more outward or external focus. Accepting impending death without fear. An emphasis on substantive relationships. A sense of connectedness with preceding and future generations. Spiritual unity with the universe. Social disengagement is not a necessary and natural development. Activity and participation must be the result of one’s own choices and that control over one’s life in all situations is essential for successful adaptation to aging. Psychological Theories of Aging: Human Needs Theory: Theorized by Maslow . Hierarchy of five needs motivates human behavior: Physiologic. Safety and security. Love and belonging. Self-esteem. Self-actualization. More basic needs such as physioligcal functioning or safety take precedence over personal growth needs (love and belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization). Movement is multidirectional . Failure to grow leads to feelings of failure, depression, and the perception that life is meaningless. Theory of Individualism: Theorized by Jung. Is not specific to aging. Our personality develops over a lifetime and is composed of an ego or self-identity that has a personal and collective unconsciousness. Personal unconsciousness is the private feelings and perceptions surrounding important persons or life events. The collective unconscious is shared by all persons. It contains latent memories about human origin. The collective unconscious is the foundation of personality on which the personal unconsciousness and ego are built. People tend to view life through either their own “lens” ( introverts ) or the lens of others ( extroverts ).
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