artistic development- progresses as gains in small muscle coordination and eye-hand coordination are made. 2 yr olds scribble 3 yr olds draw shapes, and then combine shapes into designs 4 and 5 year olds draw pictures of real-life objects and people Some adults do not value children’s art until the pictorial stage . Too much structure and well- meaning guidance here may stifle and discourage creativity . health and safety - 3-5 year olds avg 7-8 colds a year, building a natural immunity to illness. Accidents - are the number 1 cause of death among US children—being hit by cars, being involved inside cars during wrecks, and drowning. --Children should sit in child restraint seats in the back. Airbags can be fatal rather than helpful for young children. Lawnmowers- Children under 12 should not be allowed to use walk-behind lawnmowers; and those under 14 should not use riding lawnmowers. Smoking- No one should be allowed to smoke in a child’s house, or car or near a child while
elsewhere. Passive exposure to secondhand smoke increases the chances of pneumonia, bronchitis, ear infections, and asthma in children. POVERTY AND HOMELESSNESS —Poverty is a major contributor to the poor health of children. In 2006, 1 out of every 5 children under 6 years old, was below the poverty level. Millions of children are uninsured medically. Poor children, espec homeless children, have more health problems. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model points to multi-factors of the child and the immed family, the neighborhood, the culture and society. lack immunizations iron deficiency anemia diarrhea hunger and malnutrition obesity tooth decay asthma skin, eye, ear and respiratory infections scabies and lice injuries due to violence lead exposure—3 out of 4 housing units built before 1980 contain lead-based paint; interferes with cognitive development and may cause seizures severe depression anxiety sensory deficits and neurological impairments delays in development behavior problems and hyperactivity LD poor standardized test performance school failures and retentions special educ placement neglect and abuse foster care CH.10 general principles that pertain to not just cognitive devel but all development. 1. People develop at different rates . Differences are normal and expected. 2. Devel is relatively orderly. You sit before you walk, babble before you talk, interpret the world from your own vantage point before you are able to interpret it from the vantage point of others. You master addition before multiplication, algebra before calculus, Walt Disney cartoons before Shakespearean plays. 3. Development takes place gradually -- no changing overnight. Piaget’s cognitive development theory - Piaget believed that this progression in our thinking or devel in our cognition is uniform and predictable in 4 main stages during specific periods in a child’s life. The stages can not be rearranged or skipped. They occur in a universal order that is the same for everyone. There is no regression to earlier stages once they have been transformed
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 26 pages?
- Spring '16
- Van Auken
- Psychology, Theory of cognitive development