Second Vatican Council: Non- catholics can also be Christians Languages other than Latin can be used for mass Index of Prohibited Books abolished Jews not responsible for the death of Jesus Allah: Islam God Muhammad: Islam Not divine A human being Prophet with divine message Should not be worshipped or reserved, but seen as an example Born in city of Mecca, raised by uncle At 40 had visions of angel, Gabriel Message from god: there is only one god Khadijah Qur'an:"recitation"- contains the word of God to Muhammad- he memorized the words and has a scribe write them down Supreme religious authority in Islam Not just inspired by God, but the direct words of God Should be read in Arabic, the original language Hijra: The flight from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) The beginning of the Muslim calandar Important because this was the beginning of the Muslim community Mecca: Where Muhammad was born Muhammad returned to Mecca in 630 with a large army, conquered city Medina: Muhammad's message accepted City name changed from Yathrib to Medina ("the city of the Prophet") Hadith: Stories about Muhammad's life Second in importance to the Qur'an Muhammad's life seen as an example of ethical lifestyle 5 Pillars of Islam: 5 duties of all Muslims 1) Declaration of faith (Shahadah) 2) Prayer (Salat) 3) Giving to the poor (Zakat) 4) Fasting during Ramadan 5) Pilgrimage to Mecca
Sunni Islam: Traditionalists Teachings based o Qur'an and hadith No secret messages hidden in the Qur'an Shi'a Islam: Divinely inspired teachers after Muhammad: Imams An Imam speaks with the authority of God Allegorical interpretations of the Qur'an Jihad (4 meanings): "Struggle" Basic meaning: striving for one's religion 1) Heart 2) Hand 3) Tongue 4) Sword (only defensive war allowed)Neo-Paganism: Umbrella term for modern religious movements that seek to revive the pre-Christian religions of EuropeWicca: Religion introduced by British writer Gerald GardenerClaims to be the continuation of ancient pre-CHristian European religionDebate: Continuation or reconstruction?A tradition originating in antiquity or modernity or both?
Scientology: Created by science fiction author L Ron HubbardHumans are immortal beings who have forgotten their true natureReincarnationPast lives on other planetsL. Ron Hubbard: Creator of Scientology Falun Gong: Chinese movement founded by Li HogzhiPractice includes meditation, exercise, and regulated breathingPeople originally good, but caught up in samsara when they developed selfishnessMust cultivate kindness, selflessness to reach enlightenmentRastafarianism: Monotheistic religion originating in JamaicaWorship former emperor of Eithiopia as a reincarnation of JesusAfro-centric, refers to Western society as "Babylon"Ritual use of cannabisBaha'i: Monotheistic religionFounded by BahaullahAll religions true- just different paths to the same goalGod has revealed himself through humanity through many messengers (Buddha, Abraham, Jesus, Moses and Muhammad)Shinto: The religion of JapanShe-tao= "the way of the spirits"Associated with belief in Kami (spirits)No founderRich MythologyNational religionKami: SpiritGodSupernatural beingSomething powerfulAn ordinary being could be considered a Kami if it suggested they posses some sort of power
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