O you are what your parents were and your children

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o You are what your parents were and your children will be. Caste System Caste System: religion-based system of stratification characterized by no social mobility o Caste societies are stratified on the basis of hereditary notions of religious and theological purity. Ex. Can be found in South Asia – India – “varna” system which consists of four main castes. These castes each engage in certain ritual practices from which others, for better or worse, are excluded. Castes in India have historically had intermarrying between castes (exogamy) which effected the system with genetically mutated children A method of securing the caste hierarchy is “ Social closure ” where there has to be little to no individual mobility within the caste ranks – born a certain caste, marry the same caste, children will be of that caste and die that specific caste. Although no individual mobility in caste systems, entire caste can leapfrog over another and obtain higher position in hierarchy- process called sanskritization ”. Class System Class System: economically based system of stratification characterized by relative categorization and somewhat loose social mobility. o Related to position in the economic market o Heavily influenced by two theorists: Karl Marx, and Max Weber. o Marxist- class is to place an individual into a particular group that has a particular set of interests that often stand opposite to those of another group. Ex. Workers want higher wages while employers wish to depress wages. o Class identity does not correspond to an individual at all but rather to a role. Ex. Person may have 6 figure salary but as long as they don’t own any capital (stock, firm ownership) and earn salary by selling labor to someone else, they’ll find themselves in same category as lowest-paid wage laborer.
o For Marx, boils down to two antagonistic classes in a fully mature capitalist society: the employing class ( the bourgeoisie or capitalist class ) and the working class (the proletariat ). The proletariat sells its labor to the bourgeoisie in order to receive and thereby survive. The bourgeoisie extracts surplus value from the proletariat, even when a few make high incomes. Contradictory Class Locations: the idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure which fall between the two “pure” classes. o Ex. Managers might be perceived as both working class and capitalist class where in working class, they sell their labor to capitalists in order to live, and in capitalist class, they control (or dominate) workers within the production process. Weber has another view of class- arguing that class is a group that has its basis common life chances or opportunities available to it in the marketplace. o Basically what distinguishes members of a class is that they have similar value in the commercial marketplace in terms of selling their own property and labor.

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