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Nephrotoxins over time chronic renal failure stage 1

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nephrotoxins over time Chronic Renal Failure Stage
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1. Decreased renal reserve Decrease in GFR, increased creatine levels, and no obvious symptoms 2. Renal insufficiency Low GFR to 20% of normal, waste retention Excretion of large volumes of diluted urine Decreased erythropoieses and elevated blood pressure Early Signs : Increased urinary output General Signs Anorexia, nausea, anemia, fatigue, unintended weight loss, exercise intolerance Bone marrow depression and impaired cell function that are caused by increased wastes and altered blood chemistry Elevated blood pressure Complete renal failure Oliguria, dry, pruritis, hyper-pigmented skin, easy bruising Peripheral neuropathy, impotence and menstrual irregularities Encephalopathy, CHF, dysrhythmias Failure to activate vitamin D, systemic infections Possible uremic frost on the skin Diagnostic Test: anemia, acidosis, and azotemia are the key indicators of chronic renal failure Chronic Renal Failure to End Stage Renal Failure Treatment: all body systems become affected Manage symptoms, stimulate erythropoieses Treat cardiac and respiratory problems Monitor fluid I & O and restrict fluid and protein End- stage renal failure Low GFR, unable to excrete fluids, lytes, and wastes Azotemia, anemia, and acidosis (The 3 A’s) Oliguria or Anuria Regular dialysis or kidney transplant
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