Singapore is one of the most densely populated independent country in the world. The total area is 597km2 with population of 5.5 million (as per 2014). It has a diverse populace which is made up of Chinese, Malays, Indians, Eurasians as well as other Asians of different origins, owning a rather distinctive cultural characteristic. Singapore’s territory consists of the main island (commonly known as Singapore Island) and more than 60 smaller islets. Singapore historically experienced extreme turbulence in its early years. During the Second World War Japan had occupied the country, but then it was overtaken by Britain once the War ended. It became independent from Britain in 1963 by uniting with other former British territories to form Malaysia, but was separated after two years due to ideological differences. A small island had to stand up as a nation of its own. Singapore is somewhat disadvantaged in terms of its geographic location and natural resources. The small island nation sits just one-degree north of the equator, consistently hot and humid year round. The island lacks basic resources; it has no energy deposits, no forests and even no farms. However, despite lacking natural resources and hinterland, Singapore has grown into a global commerce, into an Asian tiger economy based on external trade and its skilled pool of human capital. Today, it has a highly developed market economy. The economy depends heavily on financial services, oil-refining, and manufacturing. Singapore has been ranked “Easiest place to do business” for nine consecutive years by the World Bank and in 2010 it has recorded the highest economic growth (15%) in Asia. According to the World Bank,
Singapore was ranked 4th highest with Int$ 82,763 GDP (PPP) per capita (as per 2014). As well as prospering economy, Singapore also ranks high on key measures of national social progress which includes education, healthcare, personal safety, life expectancy, etc. Since Singapore is a small island with a high population density, the number of vehicles on road is restricted to limit pollution and congestions. Vehicle owners are required to pay for high duties (one-and-a-half) times the vehicle’s market value, and bid for a Singaporean Certificate of Entitlement (COE), which allows the vehicle to run on the road. Therefore, despite the population of 5.5 million, only 0.65 million vehicles are registered and other transport modes such as foot, bicycles, bus, taxis and train (Mass Rapid Transit or Light Rail Transit) are used more generally. Internet access is readily available in Singapore. According to 2010 Report Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore, about 83 per cent of households in Singapore had access to at least one computer at home, and the proportion of households with Internet access increased to 81 per cent (both as of 2009).
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