9 Table 3 UDP upgrading projects number of core units beneficiaries and cost

9 table 3 udp upgrading projects number of core units

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9 Table 3 : UDP upgrading projects (number of core units, beneficiaries and cost) New Core Units Upgrading Units Beneficiaries Cost UDP 1 3 018 1 265 29 000 22 millions JD UDP 2 3 883 138 39 000 32 millions JD UDP 3 4 764 1 953 45 670 30 millions JD Total 11 665 3 356 113 670 84 millions JD (source HUDC report) During the 1980s some residents of informal settlements (such as the area of Jabal Ali, North East of Amman) refused the upgrading programmes. The reason being that, as Palestinian refugees, they still hoped to return to their homes in Palestine. They believed that the upgrading policies were unnecessary as their situation was “temporary”. Moreover, they refused to accept Jordan or any other country as an alternative homeland ( al-watan al-badil ). They feared that the improvement of their informal areas meant converting them into permanent living areas. The same occurred in the 1970s in the UNRWA camps. Another reason for refusing the upgrading of informal areas like Jabal Ali was that people had lived there for a long time without paying taxes or extra costs. If the Government intervened, they would start paying taxes they could not afford. 2.3 The reversal of 1997: moving towards the supply of services alone In 1991, the Housing and Urban Development Corporation was created from the merger of the Housing Corporation and the Urban Development Department. The upgrading projects then began to include the whole country and no longer only Amman. But after the Oslo peace process in September 1993, the Jordanian government began implementing a completely different policy: aimed at improving only the provision of services in informal areas without addressing issues of access to property or the real-estate status of developed plots. Another major change, all the ten UNRWA camps and all three from the Department of Palestinian Affairs (DPA) were integrated into the work of HUDC. In 1997 a new policy to reduce poverty and unemployment, the National Strategic Plan, was implemented by the Jordanian government in the context of structural adjustment policies advocated by the IMF. Its parallel urban policy was a vast infrastructure program for populations (CIP Community Infrastructure Program) both in camps and in informal areas. For the first time in the history of the Jordanian administration, all ten UNRWA camps and all three camps of the Palestinian Affairs Department were integrated into the work of HUDC. There are three types of Community Infrastructure Programme : CIP A, B and C. CIP A aims to renovate the infrastructure of informal habitats and camps. CIP B concerns the improvement of infrastructures in rural areas and small towns, in
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10 coordination with the Minister of municipal affairs. Finally, CIP C deals with the internal development of the HUDC through training and technical and computer equipment. The first infrastructure programme (CIP-A) was implemented from March 1998 to February 2002, mainly in Amman but also in Zarqa for informal areas and throughout the country for camps. The essential services included
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