Tardive dyskinesia which causes uncontrollable movements of the face mouth

Tardive dyskinesia which causes uncontrollable

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Tardive dyskinesia, which causes uncontrollable movements of the face, mouth, tongue, and extremities, can occur in long-term users of these medications. Patients can experience chemical dependence on these first-generation antipsychotic agents. 39
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SECOND-GENERATION ANTIPSYCHOTICS Second-generation antipsychotic drugs, also called atypical antipsychotic agents, are also used for schizophrenia. These medications are preferred over first- generation antipsychotics because they cause fewer side effects. For example, they do not cause tardive dyskinesia. 40
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SECOND-GENERATION ANTIPSYCHOTIC MEDS These medications are commonly used as adjuvant agents in severe mood disorders such as acute mania and bipolar depression. Risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), olanzapine (Zyprexa), ziprasidone (Geodon), and lurasidone (Latuda) are second-generation antipsychotic agents. 41
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THIRD-GENERATION ANTIPSYCHOTICS Third-generation antipsychotic medications include aripiprazole (Abilify). The mechanism of action is similar to other antipsychotic medications but there are fewer side effects. 42
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TARDIVE DYSKINESIA First-generation antipsychotic medications can cause a side effect called tardive dyskinesia. Tardive dyskinesia consists of episodes of involuntary movements of the face, lips, tongue, or extremities. Newer second-generation antipsychotic drugs do not cause tardive dyskinesia. 43
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GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER (GAD) GAD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders. Patients with GAD have fear and worry that are difficult to control. GAD can also lead to physiological symptoms including fatigue, muscle tension, restlessness, and other somatic complaints. 44
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ANXIETY RISES IN THE AMYGDALA Anxiety is believed to arise from the neurons in the region of the brain called the amygdala . The amygdala analyzes the emotional significance of environmental stimuli and stores emotional memories. Before diagnosing GAD, it is necessary to rule out medical disorders. Anxiety is commonly experienced with depression. 45
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GAD TREATMENT Cognitive behavior therapy and SSRIs, as first-line pharmacological agents, are the treatment for GAD. SSRIs have anti-anxiety and antidepressant effects. Often the patient requires a short course of a benzodiazepine to diminish anxiety symptoms. 46
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PANIC DISORDER Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unexpected episodes of extreme anxiety. Panic attacks are discrete periods of intense apprehension, fear, and terror, with associated physiological symptoms of extreme anxiety. Association with the place of the panic attack can result in a pervasive avoidance of places and situations in which a panic attack could occur. 47
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PANIC SYMPTOMS Palpitations Increased heart rate Sweating Trembling Shortness of breath Feeling of choking Chest pain Nausea Chills Hot flushes Paresthesias Dizzy Detached from oneself Sense of unreality Fears losing control Fear that he or she is dying 48
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PANIC TREATMENT
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  • Spring '17
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Antidepressant

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