11333 upward communication it means the flow of

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special ceremonies, such as picnics and United Way campaigns. 11.3.3.3. Upward Communication It means the flow of information from the lower levels of the organization to the higher level of authority. It passes from subordinate to superior as that from worker to foreman, foreman to manager. From manager to general manager & so on. This communication includes opinions, ideas, suggestions, complaints, grievances, appeals, reports etc. It is very important as it serves as the feedback on the effectiveness of downward communication. Management is able to know how well its policies, plans & objectives are followed by those working at lower levels of the organization. It keeps the management informed about the progress of the work & difficulties faced in performance. On the basis of upward communication, the management revises its plans & policies & makes further planning.
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126 11.3.3.4. Horizontal Communication The transmission of information and understanding between people on the same level of organization hierarchy is called the horizontal communication. This type of communication is also known as lateral or sideward or crosswise communication. Usually, it pertains to inter departmental managers working at the same level of organization or among subordinates working under one boss. Horizontal communication speeds up information and promotes mutual understanding. It enables the managers working at the same level to exchange information and co-ordinate their activities without referring all matters to the higher level of management. The horizontal communication is generally of an informal nature. Whenever a departmental head requires some information from another departmental head, he tends to contact him directly. However, this type of communication can be oral or written. 1) Intradepartmental problem solving: These messages take place between members of the same department in a school or division in a school-wide organizational system and concern task accomplishment. 2) Interdepartmental coordination: Interdepartmental messages facilitate the accomplishment of joint projects or tasks in a school or divisions in a school- wide organizational system. 3) Staff advice to line departments: These messages often go from specialists in academic areas, finance, or computer service to campus-level administrators seeking help in these areas. In brief, horizontal communication flows exist to enhance coordination. This horizontal channel permits a lateral or diagonal flow of messages, enabling units to work with other units without having to follow rigidly up and down channels. Many school organizations build in horizontal communications in the form of task forces, committees, liaison personnel, or matrix structures to facilitate coordination. External communication flows between employees inside the organization and with a variety of stakeholders outside the organization. External stakeholders include other administrators external to the organization, parents, government officials, community residents, and so forth. Many organizations create formal departments, such as a public relations office, to coordinate their external communications.
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