Lecture 2.docx

Intrasexual competition o within a particular sex o

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Intrasexual competition o Within a particular sex o Outcome of dominance helps mating access to the other sex ex: they can lose access to territory o Traits that help competition increase in frequency across generations such as Deer antlers Intersexual competition o Between sexes (among diff sexes) o Eg: Chosen more often or sperm chosen more often postcopulatoraly o Traits preferred are passed on to generations Other causes of Evolutionary Change
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These are not sexual or natural selection but also cause evolution Genetic drift: random changes in genetic makeup of population can occur through mutation, founder effects, bottlenecks Bottleneck in humans caused less genetic variation from population from sub-saharan africa Artificial selection: Founder Effect Founder effect is different than evolutional bottleneck Ex: Boat of people from ireland landed on an island (lot of red hair) eventually they mated with those on island, increasing red hair Bottleneck effect Different from founder effect Only those surviving individuals have genes that can be passed on changing the genetic makeup of the population Survivors are not representative of the whole gene pool Artificial Selection We want a certain trait so we select for it artificially Even after artificially selecting for traits, all the new plants are from the same crops (same pesticides which attack the wild mustard will attack those too) same genetic composition Evolution via Natural Selection Evolution wasn’t intentional, just happened Evolution is not forward thinking
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