Evaluate material types products facilities and

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evaluate material types, products, facilities, and processes based on a range of environmental and product design choices. The United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) is a strategic policy initiative for businesses that are committed to aligning their operations and strategies with 10 universally accepted principles in the areas of human rights, labor, environment, and anti-corruption. The fi rst sectorial initia- tive of the UNGC is the Code of Conduct and Manual for the Fashion and Textile Industry, which is totally aligned with the Global Compact principles. This chapter introduces SAC Higg Index 2.0 and the UNGC Code of Conduct, in addition to describing their principles or constituent tools. The chapter also analyzes the dif- ferences between both initiatives, putting forward some thoughts based on the impacts of the fashion and textile sector. However, because every company is unique, this work is not intended to prescribe the only way to develop sustainable strategies in the textile and fashion sectors. Keywords Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC) Á United Nations Global Com- pact (UNGC) Á UNGC Code of Conduct and Manual for the Fashion and Textile Sector Á SAC Higg Index 2.0 M.Á. Gardetti ( & ) The Sustainable Textile Centre, Av. San Isidro 4166, Ground Floor A , C1429ADP Buenos Aires, Republic of Argentina e-mail: [email protected]able.org.ar URL: © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015 S.S. Muthu (ed.), Roadmap to Sustainable Textiles and Clothing , Textile Science and Clothing Technology, DOI 10.1007/978-981-287-164-0_3 59
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1 Introduction In 2000, consumers spent approximately US$1 trillion worldwide buying clothes. Around one-third of sales were in Western Europe, one third in North America and one quarter in Asia (Make Trade Fair and Oxfam International 2004 ). Seven percent of total world exports are in clothing and textiles. Signi fi cant parts of the sector are dominated by developing countries, particularly in Asia, and above all by China. Industrialized countries are still important exporters of clothing and textiles, especially Germany and Italy for clothing and the United States for textiles. According to Allwood et al. ( 2006 ), developing countries now account for half of the world s textile exports and almost three quarters of the world s clothing exports. Because of the size of the sector and the historical dependence of clothing manufacture on cheap labor, the clothing and textile industry is subject to intense political interest and has been signi fi cantly shaped by international trading agree- ments. Estimating the number of people working in these sectors is extremely dif- fi cult, due to the number of small fi rms and subcontractors active in the area and the dif fi culty of drawing boundaries between sectors (Allwood et al. 2006 ). According to statistics from the United Nationals Industrial Development Organization Industrial Statistics Database, approximately 26.5 million people work within the clothing and textiles sector worldwide (International Labour Organization (ILO) 2006 ). Of these 26.5 million employees, 13 million are employed in the clothing
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