“Salisbury steak” ● USDA ○ Choosemyplate.gov ● Harvard ○ Harvard eating plate ○ What proteins to eat ● Time magazine ○ Used to hate cholesterol ○ Then said an egg a day is okay ● Ancel Keys ○ Cover of time magazine ○ “Lipid hypothesis” ■ Heart disease linked to cholesterol ● Cholesterol linked to fat ○ Calories from fat and levels of cholesterol linked to heart disease ■ But correlation does not mean causation ○ Recommended “mediterranean diet” ■ High in fat mostly from vegetables ○ Excluded populations that did not fit with his hypothesis ● Nikolai Anichkov ○ Fed rabbits with cholesterol and led to buildup of deposits in arteries ■ Heart disease ● John Gofman ○ Cholesterol carried around in the bloodstream mixed together with protein ■ Known as lipoprotein ○ Lipoproteins caused heart disease, fatty foods ● John Yudkin ○ Looked at sugar intake and heart disease ○ Criticized Keys ○ “Sweet and dangerous” book ■ High sugar and low fat still made heart disease
○ Put young men on sugar-rich diet ● Dr. Robert Lustig ○ Today we eat lots of sugar ○ Sugar is highly linked to heart disease ● Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death ○ No single nutrient is responsible ○ Build of up plaque in arteries leads to blood clots ⇒ heart attack bihh ● Risk factors for heart disease: ○ Low birth weight ○ Born male ○ Hypertension ○ Inactivity & obesity ○ Smoking ○ Diabetes ○ Stress ○ Microbes enter mouth ● Dr. Kilmer McCully ○ Methionine ⇒ homocysteine ⇒ various metabolites ○ Fed homocysteine to rabbits and triggered heart disease ■ Association ○ Harvard concluded same results about homocysteine ● How to reduce homocysteine? ○ Metabolized by B vitamins ■ Fruits and veggies ■ Vitamin supps ● Does reducing homocysteine reduce risk of heart attacks? ○ HOPE experiment ■ Bullshit ○ Not necessarily but do it anyway ● Reduce triglycerides to reduce heart disease risk? ● Cholesterol ○ Steroid by chemical structure ○ White powder ○ Essential biochemical ○ Not needed in diet because liver can produce 800mg a day ○ Only found in foods of animal origin ● Why are we concerned about cholesterol? ○ High levels in blood increase risk of heart disease ■ Association ○ Found as the scene of the ‘crime’ ● Epidemiological studies to find truth about cholesterol ○ What Ancel Keys did ● Familial hypercholesterolemia ○ Strongly associated w heart disease ○ Genetic ○ Form more cholesterol in body that can be seen outside of body ● Framingham study ○ Epidemiological ○ Cholesterol ○ Risk of heart attack increased with increase cholesterol ○ White males between ages of 30-39
○ In men and women over 50, total cholesterol is not a risk factor for heart disease ○ No significant association btwn dietary fat and heart disease ● More than half of heart attack victims don’t have high cholesterol ● Heart ○ Size of fist ○ Muscle ○ Needs constant supply of oxygen from coronary arteries ■ Block in these arteries causes heart attack (plaque buildup) ●
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