Use of hardware address sender supplies destinations

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Use Of Hardware Address Sender supplies Destination’s address Source address (in most technologies) Network hardware Uses destination address to forward packet Delivers packet to proper machine. Important note: each technology defines its own addressing scheme Internetworking With TCP/IP vol 1 -- Part 2 22 2005
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Three Types Of Hardware Addressing Schemes Static Address assigned by hardware vendor Configurable Address assigned by customer Dynamic Address assigned by software at startup Internetworking With TCP/IP vol 1 -- Part 2 23 2005
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Examples Of Hardware Address Types Configurable: proNET-10 (Proteon) 8-bit address per interface card All 1s address reserved for broadcast Address assigned by customer when device installed Dynamic MAC addressing: LocalTalk (Apple) Randomized bidding Handled by protocols in software Internetworking With TCP/IP vol 1 -- Part 2 24 2005
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Examples Of Hardware Address Types (continued) Static MAC addressing: Ethernet 48-bit address Unicast address assigned when device manufactured All 1s address reserved for broadcast One-half address space reserved for multicast (restricted form of broadcast) Ethernet’s static addressing is now most common form Internetworking With TCP/IP vol 1 -- Part 2 25 2005
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Bridge Hardware device that connects multiple LANs and makes them appear to be a single LAN Repeats all packets from one LAN to the other and vice versa Introduces delay of 1 packet-time Does not forward collisions or noise Called Layer 2 Interconnect or Layer 2 forwarder Makes multiple LANs appear to be a single, large LAN Often embedded in other equipment (e.g., DSL modem) Internetworking With TCP/IP vol 1 -- Part 2 26 2005
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Bridge (continued) Watches packets to learn which computers are on which side of the bridge Uses hardware addresses to filter Internetworking With TCP/IP vol 1 -- Part 2 27 2005
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Layer 2 Switch Electronic device Computers connect directly Applies bridging algorithm Can separate computers onto virtual networks ( VLAN switch ) Internetworking With TCP/IP vol 1 -- Part 2 28 2005
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Physical Networks As Viewed By TCP/IP TCP/IP protocols accommodate Local Area Network Wide Area Network Point-to-point link Set of bridged LANs Internetworking With TCP/IP vol 1 -- Part 2 29 2005
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The Motivation For Heterogeneity Each network technology has advantages for some applications Consequence: an internet may contain combinations of technologies Internetworking With TCP/IP vol 1 -- Part 2 30 2005
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Heterogeneity And Addressing Recall: each technology can define its own addressing scheme Heterogeneous networks imply potential for heterogeneous addressing Conclusion: cannot rely on hardware addressing Internetworking With TCP/IP vol 1 -- Part 2 31 2005
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Summary TCP/IP is designed to use all types of networks Connection-oriented Connectionless Local Area Network (LAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) Point-to-point link Set of bridged networks Internetworking With TCP/IP vol 1 -- Part 2 32 2005
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Summary (continued)
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  • Spring '11
  • riuyt
  • IP address, TCP/IP vol

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