"peace without victory": President Woodrow Wilson's phrase, used in a speech January 22, 1917 (after his efforts at mediation had failed) which he directed at the people of the belligerent nations on both sides in World War I to end the fighting before neutrals and all belligerents were ruined. The war should be ended without victory because any settlement imposed by a victor would elicit resentment and sow the seeds for new wars. A "peace without victory" would be based on the principles of the equality of nations without indemnities and annexations and of self-determination for all peoples. This speech proved to be prophetic as the settlement of World War I did lay the groundwork for World War II.
Pearl Harbor: U.S. naval base on Oahu, Hawaii (originally acquired by lease in 1889 from the Kingdom of Hawaii) on which the Japanese conducted a surprise attack on the morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941, resulting in U.S. entry into World War II (U.S. declared war on Japan on December 8; Germany declared war on the U.S. on December 11). The damage to U.S. forces ranks with the worst in its history, including 177 planes, five battleships, five other vessels lost plus damage to three battleships, three cruisers, and two other vessels. Fortunately for the U.S., its aircraft carriers were at sea on maneuvers. That same day, Japan attacked U.S. bases in the Philippines, Guam, and Wake Island, suggesting Japan hoped to knock the U.S. out of the war, or at least the western Pacific, with one blow. Pearl Harbor is significant for starting the war with Japan but also because it showsthat U.S. diplomacy, both the Open Door Policy of 1899-1900 and the isolationist interwar policies, were at best ineffective and because it became the center of an isolationist conspiracy theory which claimed FDR, in order to force the U.S. into an unnecessary war against the Axis powers, had failed to prepare the base at Pearl Harbor for an attack he knew was coming. The base had been alerted to the possibility of an attack, but the attack succeeded as a result of U.S. failures of communication and preparation at several layers within the government and the military.
Pinchot, Gifford: (1865-1946) Conservationist and political leader who, as the first professionally trained forester in the U.S., became the first head of the U.S. Forest Service when Theodore Roosevelt created the agency in 1905. Pinchot, having been educated in the scientific management of forests in Europe, had a utilitarian philosophy about the environment and agreed with TR's belief in the need for governmental regulation of the natural environment so it would benefitall. He and TR were conservationists who took a middle position between the preservationists who wanted the wilderness kept untouched and entrepreneurs who wanted unrestricted commercial development. Fond of saying, "Wilderness is waste," Pinchot worked for planned use of the nation's natural resources. He went on to be professor of forestry at Yale University and, later, governor of Pennsylvania.