water hating, non-polar molecules (ex. Plasma membrane is hydrophobic) 25. Amphipathic a. One molecule that is both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, portions of the molecule is either water loving or water hating. (ex. Membrane phospholipids= they have amphipathic bilayers of plasma membranes 26. It’s good that glucose dissolves in water because 90% of our plasma is water; glucose is our gas (the fuel that makes a car run, glucose must travel through our “gas lines”.
27. Amino acids are polar also 28. Lipids are hydrophobic so we have to form spheres that are amphipathic molecules, so the spheres that attract the lipids because some portions of it are hydrophilic, so we take the lipids and cram them inside the spheres. The outside portion of the sphere is hydrophilic and they interact with the water in our plasma thus transporting the lipids around our body. 29. Amphipathic molecules are key in transporting hydrophobic substances around the body (example: LDL or HDL are amphipathic molecules and they carry cholesterol and fat. HDL “the good cholesterol” because it carries to the liver to be destroyed, LDL “the bad cholesterol” takes the cholesterol and stores them to cells, LDL (low density lipoprotein) it is an amphipathic molecule and not considered a cholesterol, it contains cholesterol within them. HDL (high density lipoprotein) 30. Dehydration Synthesis a. Water is lost in the dehydration synthesis, also known as condensation reaction 31. Carbohydrates a. Important as energy sources that are catabolized rather than stored. b. Monosaccharides b.i. A simple sugar is a carbohydrate containing three to seven carbon atoms. b.ii. Glucose and fructose dissolve readily in water and are rapidly disturbed throughout the body by blood and other body fluids b.iii. It is an energy source that is manufactured in the body and obtained from food, distributed in body fluids c. Disaccharides c.i. Two monosaccharides form into a disaccharides c.ii. The formation of sucrose is through dehydration synthesis c.ii.1. Linking molecules together by the removal of a water molecule c.iii. The breaking down of sucrose into a simple sugar is through hydrolysis c.iii.1. Adding water to the reaction breaks the sucrose down to two separate monosaccharides c.iv. Food contains disaccharides which is essential in breaking down to get energy from it
32. Polysaccharides a. Starch, Glucose, and cellulose b. Starch b.i. Two forms by amylose and amylopectin b.ii. 20% is amylose 80% amylopectin c. We store glucose as glycogen and plants store glucose as starch d. Dietary fibers for us would be cellulose e. Fibers make poop more bulky making the large intestines contract more excluding more muscle strength thus making them work f. Glycogen is an example of this g. Functions as a storage of glucose h. Does not dissolve in water or other body fluids.