Idea that culture is a powerful force and that it

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- idea that culture is a powerful force and that it fulfills the  natural need for human beings to have a cultural identity and to belong to cultural, national groups.  Nations are objective realities; they exist naturally, and nationalism simply  corresponds to their awakening, which can be triggered by various social,  political, economic, or ideological factors. As was the case for  primordialism, the cultural explanation for nationalism seems well  equipped to tackle the emotional component of nationalism or , in other  words, to explain why followers follow.   2. Economic-  Holds that nationalism is ultimately the product of the  uneven development of the capitalist economy.  Its roots are not  primarily in culture but rather in material conditions.   I-      Internal colonialism- tackles nationalism from a neo-Marxist perspective  and suggests that it is the consequence of the deliberate exploitation and  oppression of peripheral regions by a central state. Therefore  underdevelopment produced by economic exploitation is what fuels  nationalism. This thesis has been shown to be problematic empirically 
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since nationalist movements have emerged in richer regions such as  Catalonia.   II-      Second version of the economic explanation makes room for  nationalism to emerge in these more wealthy regions since it does not  make nationalism the result of patterns of oppression but rather the  consequence of the territorial discrepancies in capitalist development.   These economic explanations seem to capture a dimension of  nationalism, since many nationalist claims and grievances are about the  central state’s territorial distribution of resources and economic  development policies.   3. Political approach-  nationalism is about power and features elites most  prominently.   Nationalism is an almost accidental by-product of elite competition:  struggles for power between leaders of linguistic groups, for example,  would be more likely to structure politics around language and trigger  processes of identity construction and nationalist mobilization   The usefulness of nationalism for political elites trying to gain an  advantage in their power struggles: elites make a strategic decision to  mobilize, politicize, and even create identities to further their own  immediate political objectives.   It is a political outcome that tends to come in the form of a movement, with leaders and followers.   The weakness of the political explanation is that it has difficulty explaining  why elite competition and power struggles do not always lead to  nationalism, even in conditions of cultural diversity.  
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