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- idea that culture is a powerful force and that it fulfills the natural need for human beings to have a cultural identity and to belongto cultural, national groups. •Nations are objective realities; they exist naturally, and nationalism simply corresponds to their awakening, which can be triggered by various social, political, economic, or ideological factors. As was the case for primordialism, the cultural explanation for nationalism seems well equipped to tackle the emotional component of nationalism or , in other words, to explain why followers follow. 2. Economic- Holds that nationalism is ultimately the product of the uneven development of the capitalist economy. Its roots are not primarily in culture but rather in material conditions. •I- Internal colonialism- tackles nationalism from a neo-Marxist perspective and suggests that it is the consequence of the deliberate exploitation and oppression of peripheral regions by a central state. Therefore underdevelopment produced by economic exploitation is what fuels nationalism. This thesis has been shown to be problematic empirically
since nationalist movements have emerged in richer regions such as Catalonia. •II- Second version of the economic explanation makes room for nationalism to emerge in these more wealthy regions since it does not make nationalism the result of patterns of oppression but rather the consequence of the territorial discrepancies in capitalist development. •These economic explanations seem to capture a dimension of nationalism, since many nationalist claims and grievances are about the central state’s territorial distribution of resources and economic development policies. 3. Political approach- nationalism is about power and features elites most prominently. •Nationalism is an almost accidental by-product of elite competition: struggles for power between leaders of linguistic groups, for example, would be more likely to structure politics around language and trigger processes of identity construction and nationalist mobilization •The usefulness of nationalism for political elites trying to gain an advantage in their power struggles: elites make a strategic decision to mobilize, politicize, and even create identities to further their own immediate political objectives. •It is a political outcome that tends to come in the form of a movement, withleaders and followers. •The weakness of the political explanation is that it has difficulty explaining why elite competition and power struggles do not always lead to nationalism, even in conditions of cultural diversity.
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