Within culture as well in his memoir memories dreams

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within culture as well. In his memoir, Memories, Dreams, Reflections , Jung wrote that meaning comes “when people feel they are living the symbolic life, that they are actors in the divine drama. That gives the only meaning to human life; everything else is banal and you can dismiss it. A career, producing of children, are all maya (illusion) compared to that one thing, that your life is meaningful.” °
Behavioural Therapy (unit 5) 11/04/2020 ° Unit 5 Behavioural Theory ° Overview ° The term second force refers to the emergence of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural theories, which have significantly challenged the intrapsychic assumptions of the traditional psychodynamic theories. Although the chapters on these theories occur later in Corey’s text, they are covered at this point in the course to correspond to the historical period in which the models emerged (or at least rose to significance). The rise of behaviourism created a dramatic shift in focus from the study of the mind to the study of behaviour—hence Corey’s term action therapies . ° Early on, behavioural theories focused on the learning principles associated with classical or respondent conditioning. In the famous story of Little Albert, an 11-month-old child changed his playful attraction to a white rat to a strong fear reaction when Watson, an early behavioural researcher, repeated a loud noise every time Albert was handed the rat. In another well- known case, the biologist Pavlov observed that dogs would begin to salivate to the sound of a bell when the sound had previously been paired with food. Later, Skinner introduced a second hypothesis about learned behaviour, that of instrumental or operant conditioning. He shifted the focus to using positive and negative reinforcers to enhance or reduce recurrence of particular voluntary behaviours. In a classic experiment of operant conditioning, rats learned to press a bar to release food into a dish. ° By the early 1970s, the failure of strictly behavioural concepts to explain and alter human behaviour led to a re-emphasis on cognitive mediators in human functioning. The cognitive-behaviour approaches explored in Unit 6 define and address the cognitive processes in learning and behaviour change. Both behavioural and cognitive-behavioural approaches rely on the scientific method to develop and evaluate theoretical models for human behaviour and change processes. The emphasis on empiricism is a key characteristic of these approaches. ° Learning Objectives ° When you have completed Unit 5, you should be able to ° describe the three historical trends that have influenced the rise of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural perspectives in psychology. ° identify the basic assumptions of behaviour therapy.
° describe the roles of the therapist and client, and explain how the therapeutic relationship facilitates client change.

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