o Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs and theory of motivation: based on the assumptions that when lower-level needs are satisfied, a person moves up to higher-level needs and needs do not motivate. - Personality and Self-Concept : personality is the individuals psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to the environment (influenced by self-perceptions which are developed from friends/family) o Self-concept theory : Real self (you as you really are), Self-image (how you see yourself), looking- glass self (how you think others see you), Ideal self (how ou would like to be) 2
MCS*3620 Chapter One o Real self and self-image are less significant because they do NOT focus on desires. - Attitudes and Perceptions : are an individual’s feelings toward an idea or object, based on what they hear, read, and see about a product, and trustworthy opinions. o Organizations present their product in accordance with attitudes of their target audience. Its expensive to try and change an attitude, companies must monitor change in attitudes. o Perceptions are the manner individuals receive and interpret messages. Consumers accept messages that are in line with their needs, personality, self-concept and attitudes. o Levels of selectivity : 1. Selective exposure 2. Selective perception 3. Selective retention o Reference Groups : group with common interests that influence attitudes and behaviours of members. Desire to fit in. Their influence is strong on younger people. o Family Influences : family/friends have the strongest influences on women. You must consider the changing roles and responsibilities of family members. Children also have an influence (co- purchasers) Double targeting : companies that are devising marketing strategies that reach both genders effectively. I NPUTS FOR M ARKETING C OMMUNICATIONS P LANNING : B USINESS AND O RGANIZATIONAL B UYER B EHAVIOUR - Business-to-business market : managed by individuals in an organization responsible for purchasing goods and services needed to produce a product or service or promote an idea. o Fewer buyers, buyers are practical and have predetermined requirements, formal buying process. o The requirements : quality, service, continuity of supply, price. o Formal Approach : involves a buying committee , composed of workers from various functional areas and has a rational approach when evaluating alternatives, costly decisions are shared. o Informal Approach : involves a buying center, organizations individuals are involves in the purchasing process but don’t have direct responsibility over the actual decision.
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