sequences suffer most from sheer lack of study Studies that avoid the major

Sequences suffer most from sheer lack of study

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sequences suffer most from sheer lack of study. Studies that avoid the major problems listed here are greatly needed. Also needed are investi- gations of possible beneficial human consequences of stress. Organizational Consequences Facet individual from those that are most directly relevant to the organiza- tion implies that these two parties may value events independently. Consequences of stress in which the organization presumably has more direct interest than the individual employee are primarily those (e.g., an employee’s job performance) presumed to be linked directly with the organization’s effectiveness. Job performance. Many studies have bgen compiled in which vari- Separation of the consequences that are most directly relevant to the’
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690 PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY ables labeled stress are shown related to job performance-type vari- ables (e.g., Andrews and Farris, 1972; Drabek and Haas, 1969; McGrath, 1976). Since most of these studies did not simultaneously include human consequences (employee health) and job performance variables, the “job stress” variables in such studies did not fit the definition of job stress used to guide this review and, therefore, those studies were not reviewed. Conversely, the stress articles reviewed in conjunction with the human consequences facet tended to ignore worker’s job performance as a dependent variable. Since high performance may be gained at the expense of employee health (at least in the short run), a more balanced approach, combining both performance and health measures in a longitudinal study, is sorely needed if we are to get a more comprehen- sive understanding of the sequential consequences of job stress. Several hypothetical relationships (e.g., positive linear, inverted U- shape) between stress and performance need to be tested rigorously in the field. It seems likely that the relationship may vary by type of stressor and/or by the type of performance measured and it may be moderated by various personal and situational factors. One laboratory experiment (Sales, 1970) has studied both perform- ance (on an anagrams task) and some human consequences (tension and heart rate). Sales found that overloaded subjects decoded more anagrams but they made more errors and decoded a smaller percent- age of the anagrams given them. Thus, depending on the definition of job performance, overload led to either better or worse performance. Employee suggestions. The frequency of suggestions submitted by employees regarding potential work improvements may also be taken as an organizationally relevant consequence. Margolis, et al. (1974) have shown that two perceived job stressors (resource inadequacy and overload) are positively correlated, while three others (under- utilization of skills, insecurity, and nonparticipation in decision-mak- ing) are negatively correlated with frequency of suggestions among a national sample of workers. Here again, more research needs to be done. It is unknown, for example, whether most of the suggestions regard the alleviation of the stress itself, or whether the presence of
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