The arabic renaissance رصع ةضهنل? and the

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different countries that are geographically distant from each other. The Arabic renaissance ( رصع ةضهنلا ) and the system of education taking momentum of national governments as well as using Arabic as an official language, all contributed to the flourishing of Arabic in modern times. The kind of Arabic that developed and has been used in formal settings, books and the media is what is called Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Standard refers to the unified variety of language that is mainly written not spoken. It is important to highlight the fact that modern standard Arabic is inherently fuSHaa , because despite the huge development it witnessed, its lexical stock and structures are in general those of Classical Arabic (see Varieties of Arabic below). Worth noting, translation has contributed largely to MSA by introducing new terms from other cultures and civilizations, western in particular. 2. Varieties of Arabic Arabic is usually categorised as Classical Arabic (CA) and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). The former refers to the Arabic whose earliest texts goes back to the third Century. Its sources is mainly the Holy Quran and pre-Islamic poetry. It remained as the official and literary language till sometime after the capture of Baghdad by Hulagu in the Thirteenth Century. CA is the language of the Qur’an, classical literary and non-literary works. It is characterised by its rich vocabulary and very elaborate grammar. It developed and flourished when the Islamic civilization flourished and experienced a movement of research and high education, including a large scale of institutionalized translation of different works of sciences and humanities. Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), on the other hand, is used to refer to the modern written Arabic that functions as a formal medium of communication in the Arab world. MSA is a preserved CA that evolved under the influence of a long period of stagnation, translation activity, and modern style. It is mainly a written variety (see Table 2 below). There are also different labels used to refer to modern Arabic such as literary Arabic and contemporary Arabic (see Bakalla, 1984: 85; Holes, 1995: 4; Abd Al-Aziiz, 1998). 4
Arabic is also looked at as having at least two varieties: the eloquent variety ( fuSHaa ) where the line between CA and MSA is blurred, and the vernacular or colloquial ( ةيماعلا C aamiyah or ةجرادلا daarijah ), which is mainly spoken. Table 2 below provides a comparison of the features of these two main categories. It is important to note that these features should be looked at as ‘mainly’ not ‘solely’. The colloquial variety can also be used in formal context and thus it moves towards the standard variety. In the case of advertisements, the written form of the colloquial variety is used for the sake of simplicity and to reach wider audience, especially when they are initially broadcast on TV or radio.

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