2013scoboriafisicojepappdkencouraged.doc

The delay between the video and questioning was a

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The delay between the video and questioning was a brief 30 min. It is theoretically and practically interesting to study longer delays. Delay should produce forgetting and therefore greater uncertainty at questioning. This may lead to increased DK rates, and encouraging DK responses may lead to their more indiscriminate use. However, avoiding responses is not the only option available when adjusting for the passage of time. People also alter the grain size of their responses to be less specific but still correct (Evans & Fisher, 2011). Hence, there may be more coarse grain ‘present not remembered’ statements following delay. From an applied perspective, longer delays are more likely in naturalistic settings, so establishing the effects of instructions and clarification following longer delays enhances the applied value of the research. Study 2 Method Participants and Procedure We recruited a new group of 76 undergraduates (74% female, ages 18-38, M = 21.9, SD = 5.22), who received course credit. The design was identical to Study 1, except the delay between the video and questioning was seven days. Because both instructional group and delay were not randomized across the studies, no statistical comparison was undertaken; the patterns of results are contrasted in the general discussion (see Table 2 for responses by group). Study 2 Results Initial Effects of Encouraging and Discouraging Don’t Know Instructions For initial DK responses, the main effects of group were statistically significant for answerable, F (2,73) = 13.09, p < .001, ω 2 = .24, and unanswerable questions; F (2,73) = 16.35, p < .001, ω 2 = .29. Post-hoc contrasts for answerable questions showed that the encouraged
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ENCOURAGING AND CLARIFYING DON’T KNOW RESPONSES… 16 group made more DK responses than controls, t (49) = 2.07, p = .044, d = 0.58, and controls made more DK responses than the discouraged group, t (49) = 3.12, p = .003, d = 0.88. For unanswerable questions, the encouraged group made more DK responses than the other groups, t (74) = 5.21, p < .001, d = 1.27, which did not differ. In parallel, output was the lowest in the encouraged group. The next analyses examined accuracy, correct responses and errors. Main effects for errors emerged for answerable, F (2,73) = 14.00, p < .001, ω 2 = .25, and unanswerable questions, F (2,73) = 9.10, p < .001, ω 2 = .17. Post-hoc tests for answerable errors showed that the encouraged group made fewer errors than controls, t (48) = 5.08, p < .001, d = 1.13, and controls made fewer errors than the discouraged group, t (49) = 2.20, p = .032, d = 0.98. For unanswerable questions, the encouraged group made fewer errors than the other groups, t (74) = 4.01, p < .001, d = 0.98, which did not differ. Group differences for accuracy emerged for answerable questions, F (2,72) = 5.98, p = .004, ω 2 = .11; the encouraged group showed higher accuracy than the other groups, which did not differ. The groups did not differ in accuracy for unanswerable questions, F (2,72) = .473, p = .625, ω 2 = .00. The groups did not differ in correct responding.
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  • Fall '17
  • Jane Moore
  • Centrifugation, Journal of Experimental Psychology, Fourteen unanswerable questions, dk responses, Alan Scoboria

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