In addition such preparation would require a

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In addition, suchpreparation would require a curriculum with frontal attention to theprospective teacher's early learning about teaching:Educatio:1 students have usually internalized...the practicesof their own teachers.If teachers are to adapt their behaviorto changed circumstances, they will have to be freed ofunconscious influences of this kind; what they bring from thepast should be as thoroughly examined as alternatives in thepresent.There are perplexing psychological questions in thisregard; what teaching methods will be most effective in helpingstudents to gain cognitive control over previous unconsciouslearning? (Lortie, 1975, p. 231)Concerned that the preparation of teachers did not "seem to result inthe analytic turn of mind one finds in other occupations whose members aretrained in colleges and universities," Lortie (1975) noted, in particular,tne disinclination to connect knowledge of scientific method with pract_:cal;e3-2hing
82Scientific modes of reasoning and pedagogical practice sees?compartmentalized... those in other kinds of "people work"seem more inclined to connect issues with scientific modes ofthought.This separation is relevant because it militatesagainst the development of an effective culture and becauseitsabsence means that conservative doctrines receive lessfactualchallenge; each teacher is encouraged to havea personal versionof teaching truth.(p. 231)Like many of Lortie's observations, this tooconcerns the need forincreased professional socialization and liberal-professionalstudy.Although he remained perplexed ("this intellectual segregationpuzzlesme"), he speculated that it was likely attributableto "compartmentalizedinstruction" and a curriculum in which education studentswere not expected"to apply substantive knowledge in behavioral science to practical matters"(p. 231).Although Lortie did not focus on the curriculum fragmentationproblem as intensively as others (Lanier & Henderson, 1973), he indicatedthe need for better integration in formal preparation programs andcurriculum revision that would offer significant "opportunities forcountering reflexive conservatism among teachers"(p. 232).Emphasizing the need for more intellectual exchange and enrichedexperience, Lortie recommended a number of ways that liberal-professionalstudies could be strengthened:(1) an increase in the number and diversityof classroom mentors; (2) requirements that teachers observe, evaluate, andjustify their assessments of a wide variety of teaching styles andapproaches; (3) expectations that teachers explicate the reasoningunderlying their choices; and (4) opportunities for systematic inquiryduring apprenticeship.In addition, Lortie recommended that thecurr4_:1,1t fol practicing as well as prospective teachers containgreateropportunities for learning analytical skills and habits of thinkingaboutserious social and educational questions; the importantmeans for acquiringsuch abilities should be through shared discussion and analysis.
83In deliberations of the sort

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Term
Fall
Professor
Dr Naveed

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