Course of quality improvement the aim is to point out

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course of quality improvement, the aim is to point out and implement potential im-provements (Weltgen 2009, p. 27), for example with regard to products, services, or processes. As time goes by, increasingly ambitious quality goals are set and pursued (Schneider et al. 2008, p. 166). To illustrate the process of implementating quality management, Juran draws the pic-ture of a so-called quality spiral (see Figure 8), depicting all corporate activities taking place in the course of a market launch. In a way, each division produces a specific product, which is then passed on to another division (Weltgen 2009, p. 28). Figure 14: Juran’s Quality Spiral Source: Weltgen (2009), p. 28. Top-level management, according to Juran, has the core responsibility to initiate and implement the optimization of quality processes. The individual corporate divisions are equally responsible for the quality produced. For Juran, it is of key importance to ensure close cooperation between the individual divisions. To accurately determine the quality produced, Juran recommends to make use of statistical methods (Oess 1993, p. 82). Moreover, Juran coined the term ‘Pareto principle‘, which is named after the famous economist Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923) (Schneider et al. 2008, p. 166). In its general form, the Pareto principle states that 80 % of the effects can be traced back to only 20
110 % of the potential causes. Based on that principle, Juran undertook to classify custom-ers according to their importance for the company. The small minority of particularly important customers is referred to by Juran as the ‘vital few‘. That minority has a major impact on the company. The other customers, the ‘useful many‘, on the other hand, are only important in terms of a collective, not in terms of individuals (Meigel-Schleiff 2001, p. 13). 3.1.15.2 Strenghts and Possibilities of Juran’s Approach It is the merit of Juran to have been the first to distinguish between internal and external customers, which indicates ‘a considerable development regarding employee partici-pation and employee responsibility in holistic management systems‘ (43Weltgen 2009, p. 28). It follows that his approach is directed to employee emancipation. A further innovative aspect of his approach is that product functionality becomes the criterion for quality, product meaning both material and non-material goods. Of equal im-portance is the fact that for Juran it is corporate management that is primarily held responsible for quality defects, thus creating the basis for long-term quality improve-ment (Kühl & Schmidt 2004, p. 108). Bruhn (2008, p. 73) particularly stresses Juran’s orientation to products, taking into consideration that such orientation is particularly suitable for service companies. For it is a common feature of service companies to ensure that there is a strong, process-like interaction between the service provider and customers. A further merit of Juran’s approach is the fact that it influenced the Japanese concept of company-wide quality control (CWQC), which shows a dynamic orientation, too (Bruhn 2008, p. 73).

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