Team dynamics: cohesive teams with performance-oriented norms act as a substitute for most leader interventions (paremvasis).Performance-oriented team norms substitute for directive and possibly achievement-oriented leadership.Thus, when team cohesion is low, leaders should use the supportive style.Leaders should apply a directive style to counteract team norms that oppose the team’s formal objectives.• Low cohesion: supportive leadership• Dysfunctional norms: directive leadershipEXAMPLES-CEO explains that they avoid directive leadership micromanaging because that style doesn’t work well with skilled and experienced employees. “We’ve employed really senior competent people and if you do that then you don’t need to manage them, as much you just need to give them the right tools to deliver their best work,” McHugh says. -McHugh and Armstrong also apply plenty of supportive leadership. “Our industry is fast-paced, often ‘churning and burning’ its employees to reach a short-term solution,” admits founder Paul Armstrong. “We’redifferent because we realize the cost of employees leaving is huge.” In fact, “nurturing” is one of the company’s core values. Along with providing psychological support, Armstrong introduced spa days, flexible hours, free food, and rules that allow employees to bring their furry friends (dogs) to work.
Evaluating Path-Goal Theory – Limitations-Contingencies need more research and investigation.- if path-goal theory expands, the model may become too complex for practical use. Few people would remember all the contingencies and the appropriate style for each one.- in reality leaders have a preferred styleOther Managerial Leadership TheoriesSituational Leadership Modelsuggests that effective leaders vary their style with the ability and motivation of followers.• Four styles: telling, selling, participating, delegating • Best style depends on follower ability/motivation• Popular model, but lacks research supportFiedler’s Contingency Model leader effectiveness depends on whether the person’s natural leadership style is appropriately matched to the situation.• Leadership style is stable -- based on personality• Best style depends on situational control• Theory has problems, but uniquely points out that leaders have a preferred style, not very flexibleLeadership SubstitutesContingencies that limit a leader’s influence or make a particular leadership style unnecessary• Example: Training/experience replace task-oriented leadership • Example: Cohesive team replaces supportive leadershipResearch evidence• Substitutes help, but don’t completely substitute for real leadership
Implicit Leadership PerspectiveFollower perceptions of effective leaders1. Leadership prototypes• Preconceived beliefs about the features and behaviours of effective leaders• Favourable evaluation to leaders who fit the prototypePeople evaluate leader’s effectiveness in terms of who well that person fits
- Fall '19
- team development, Team Dynamics