education excellence. Vanichchinchai and Igel (2009) in their literature review on TQM and SCM try to contrast and compare these strategies using various aspects including these three major practices to strengthen TQM and the entire supply chain. Another example to elaborate this finding is the study performed by Kuei et al. (2001) to test middle manager’s perceptions on the association between supply chain quality management practices and organizational performance. They found that IJPPM 60,3 282
organizational performance is associated with the improvements in supply chain quality management practices like supplier quality management, customers’ relationships and satisfaction, supplier relationships and partnership, and supplier selection. Other relevant examples which support this implication and can guide managers of organizations are: Chandra and Kumar (2000); Casadesu ´s and de Castro (2005); and Salvador et al. (2001). Third, the finding of the study may not be treated as an ideal set for all types of organization and are firm specific. For example, in the studies of TQM and SCM, especially of TQM, the literature review suggest that there exists different sets of practices for manufacturing and service organizations, and for the different sectors within these. Different sets of TQM practices are identified and implemented to improve performance for different sectors such as processing industries, manufacturing industries, healthcare establishments, banking industry, and educational institutions. However, some authors have argued that the same set of practices are applicable to manufacturing and service organizations and can be directly transferred from one type of organization to another without modification (Behara and Gundersen, 2001; Schonberger, 1992). As such, this identifies that there is a need to address issue related to the appropriateness and adoptability of various TQM and SCM practices for manufacturing and service organizations. Also, the diverse nature of services is an additional dimension capable of effecting the implementation of TQM and SCM principles. Hence, there is a need for further research that addresses the broader aspects of industry. Finally, since SCM involve supplier, manufacturers, distributors, retailers, and customers; establishing trustworthy relationships among all the supply chain partners is the most important factor that managers have to take care of to share accurate information and to establish effective and efficient SCM practices. This implication of the present study can further be explained through a research paper by Rajagopal et al. (2009) who empirically examined for supply chain partners (SCP) the significant determinants that can be manipulated by the firm to increase their effectiveness in SCP efforts. The finding indicates that resource sharing can have a positive influence on SCP. Other similar studies supporting this implication are by Wu et al. (2004) and O’Keeffe (1998).
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