peoples sexual orientation is so basic to who they are that it operates

Peoples sexual orientation is so basic to who they

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people’s sexual orientation is so basic to who they are that it operates unconsciously, as seen in experiments that draw their attention toward particular flashed nude images not consciously perceived ii. Women’s sexual orientation tends to be less strongly felt and potentially more fluid and changing = erotic plasticity iii. Homosexuals are no more likely than heterosexuals to have been smothered by maternal love or neglected by their father iv. gay men tend to recall going through puberty somewhat earlier, when peers are more likely to be all males v. Homosexual behavior seems a natural part of the animal world. 1. Penguins, grizzlies, gorillas, monkeys, vi. Brain differences 1. Researcher Simon LeVay (1991) studied sections of the hypothalamus taken from deceased heterosexual and homosexual people = blind study 2. One cell cluster was reliably larger in heterosexual men than in women and homosexual men
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3. When straight women were given a whiff of a scent derived from men’s sweat, their hypothalamus activated in an area governing sexual arousal. Gay men’s brains responded similarly to the men’s scent. But straight men’s brains showed the arousal response only to a female hormone derivative. 5. “First, homosexuality does appear to run in families,” noted Brian Mustanski and Michael Bailey (2003). “Second, twin studies have established that genes play a substantial role in explaining individual differences in sexual orientation.” Identical twins are somewhat more likely than fraternal twins to share a homosexual orientation 6. Perhaps the genes that dispose women to be strongly attracted (or attractive) to men, and therefore to have more children, also dispose some men to be attracted to men (LeVay, 2011). Thus, the decreased reproduction by gay men appears offset by the increased reproduction by their maternal extended family. 7. Men who have older brothers are somewhat more likely to be gay a. older brother or fraternal birth-order effect 8. Men and women can achieve orgasm alone, yet most people find greater satisfaction—and experience a much greater surge in the prolactin hormone associated with sexual satisfaction and satiety—after intercourse and orgasm with their loved one ( 9. The Need to Belong 506 a. Aristotle called the social animal. “Without friends,” wrote Aristotle in his Nichomachean Ethics, “no one would choose to live, though he had all other goods.” This deep need to belong—our affiliation need—seems to be a basic human motivation b. When our need for relatedness is satisfied in balance with two other basic psychological needs—autonomy (a sense of personal control) and competence—we experience a deep sense of well-being, and our self-esteem rides high (Deci & Ryan, 2002, 2009; Milyavskaya et al., 2009). Indeed, self - esteem is a gauge of how valued and accepted we feel c. Pictures of our loved ones also activate a brain region associated with safety—the prefrontal cortex—that dampens feelings of physical pain (Eisenberger et al., 2011). Love is a natural painkiller d. ostracism—of social exclusion (Williams, 2007, 2009). Worldwide, humans use
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