Nursing Research Proposal Finalized.docx

Those at risk include patients clients visitors and

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seek or offer care in health facilities (World Health Organization, 2009). Those at risk include patients, clients, visitors and healthcare providers. These infections result in more serious illness, prolonged hospital stay, additional costs and emotional stress to patients and their families, long- term disabilities, increased resistance of micro-organisms to anti-microbial agents, massive additional financial burden on health care systems and critically often tragic loss of life (WHO, 2009). Healthcare-associated infections are infections that occur in susceptible hosts during the process of care in a health facility which were not present or incubating within the individual at the time of admission or contact with the facility. These include infections acquired in the health facility but whose symptoms appear after discharge. Occupational infections among health care providers also fall in this category (World Health Organization, 2002). The types of infectious agents involved in the causation of hospital-acquired infections are gram-positive and gram- negative bacteria, viruses (Human immunodeficiency virus, Hepatitis B & C viruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome virus and Ebola virus) and rarely fungi, causing urinary tract, surgical site, bloodstream and lower respiratory tract infections. The exact global burden of healthcare-associated infections is unknown in many developing countries due to the complexity of the diagnostic criteria and absence of national surveillance 4
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Research Proposal systems (World Health Organization, 2011). These infections are estimated to account for approximately 10% of hospital admissions worldwide. In resource-restricted settings particularly low- and middle-income countries, the prevalence rates of healthcare-associated infections are estimated at 15 - 31% (WHO, 2011). Although information on the impact of hospital-acquired infections from these countries is scanty, the disease burden is several-fold higher than in developed, high-income countries in which evidence shows healthcare-associated infections affect 5 - 15% of hospitalized patients and up to 9 – 37% of those admitted to intensive care units (Vincent, 2003). Gikas et al (2002); Klavs et al (2003); Di Pietrantoni et al (2004); Eriksen et al (2005) and Reilly et al (2008) reported hospital-wide healthcare-associated infection prevalence rates of between 4.6 and 9.3% in European hospitals. They estimated that 5 million health-acquired infections occur in acute care hospitals in Europe annually, contributing to 135,000 deaths per year and representing around 25 million extra days of hospital stay with a corresponding economic burden of 13 - 24 billion Euros. In the United States of America, estimated incidence rate of health- associated infections was 4.5% in 2002, corresponding to 9.3 infections per 1000 patient-days and 1.7 million affected patients with an annual economic impact of 6.5 billion US dollars in 2004 (Klevens et al , 2007). Approximately 99,000 deaths in the United States were attributed to health-associated infections during the same period (Stone et al , 2005). In prevalence surveys carried out in Albania (Faria et al , 2007), Morocco (Jroundi et al , 2007), Tunisia (Kallel et al , 2005), and Tanzania (Gosling et al
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  • Winter '18
  • N/A
  • Health care provider, health care workers, Hand Hygiene, Samburu Health center

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