18 Modelling This refers to learning through direct observation. It involves a model and an observer. The model may be the father, mother, sibling, teacher, or peer while the observer is the learner. The model demonstrates behaviour which the learner imitates. The behaviour could be mannerisms, gestures, dressing style, language use, walking style, display of aggression, manner of working, attitudes, and values. In order to acquire any of the above behaviours the observer watches the model demonstrate the behaviour and practices it. Application of Modelling To apply the concept gained from the modelling theory the teacher should do the following: Become models of good behaviour like good grooming, punctuality, hard work, positive attitudes, responsibility, honesty, etc. The teacher should recognize models of good behaviour from among students and reinforce them positively. The teacher should also invite models of the desired behaviour from the community to come and speak to the students. For example models of women who earn a living through mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology can be invited to talk to the girls and encourage them to take these subjects seriously and also to confirm to them that women can actually excel in them. Insightful/Gestalt learning This type of learning is also referred to as field learning. It is a cognitive type of learning which focuses on the use of mental processes like thinking, perception and insight in finding a solution to the problems confronting a learner. This theory focuses on the ability of animals and people to solve problems through reorganizing the perceptual world and using the facilities available to solve problems. The experiments to demonstrate how learning occurs through insight were conducted by Wolfgang Kohler in the 1920s. Kohler worked with Chimpanzees. He had one bright chimpanzee called Sultan (Atkinson, 1990). Kohler put sultan in a cage and then put a banana outside the cage, but out of sultan s reach. In the cage, Kohler put a stick. Sultan reached out for the banana but he could not retrieve it with his hand because it was out of reach. When he did not get the 18
19 banana he looked around the cage and saw the stick. He quickly went for the stick and used it to retrieve the banana. On the next day Kohler put the banana further away outside the cage but at the same time placed two bamboo sticks in the cage. Sultan ran for one of the sticks to get the bananas. However, as he played with both sticks, one end of the stick entered the hollow side of the other stick. Sultan looked at the joined sticks and immediately ran to solve his problem. With the now lengthened stick, he pulled the bananas. Insight then is that mental activity that is very rapid; almost immediate that helps us to solve a problem, when we mentally see the relationships of things in our immediate environment. It is a rapid perception of relationships, which helps us to restructure and reorganize our perceptual world. For example sultan was able to restructure his environment and reorganize it to solve his immediate problem.
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- Spring '16