Despite gender being part of everyones identity

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Despite gender being part of everyone’s identity, gender has traditionally it hasnot beenconsideredasignificant variablein thestudy of managementSo… organization and management theory were assumed to begender-neutral>E.g. classical theory – set of functions>E.g. relationships to employees – human relationsBut this knowledge isgender-blindrather than neutral:>Always based on the masculine – amasculine norm>Feminine excluded, marginalised and rendered abject.
GENDER STEREOTYPES IN WESTERN SOCIETYMasculine1. Public2. Outside3. Work4. Work5. Production6. Independence7. PowerFeminine1. Private2. Inside3. Home4. Leisure/pleasure5. Consumption6. Dependence7.Lack of power
Male“leader & decision-maker”1. Logical2. Rational3. Aggressive4. Exploitative5. Strategic6. Independent7. CompetitiveFemale- “supporter & follower”1. Intuitive2. Emotional3. Submissive4. Empathetic5. Spontaneous6. Nurturing7. Cooperative
THE GENDERED ORGANIZATION“To say that an organization… isgendered means thatadvantage anddisadvantage, exploitation and control,action and emotion,meaning andidentity, are patterned through and interms ofa distinction between maleand female, masculine and feminine”Acker, J. (1992) Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organziation,Gender and Society, 4(2): 139-158Recognising the rolethat gender plays inorganisations…
FIVE PROCESSES OF ORGANIZATIONAL GENDERING1.Gendered Division ofPower– men almost always in the highest positionsof organizational power2.GenderedSymbolism– through language, dress and popular culture – e.g.association of business leaders as masculine3.Patterns ofInteraction– communication in organizations that support thatidea that men are ‘actors’ and women are ‘supporters’4.GenderedIdentity– assumptions that men and women must enactparticular identities through choice of work, language use, clothing,gendered self presentation5.GenderedStructures– assumptions of rationality, hierarchy and separationof public and private spheresAcker, J. (1992) Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organziation,Gender and Society, 4(2): 139-158
Wajcman, J. (1998)Managing Like a Man: Women and Men in Corporate Management, Cambridge: Polity Press.MANAGING LIKE A MAN?Expectations of corporate managers:Being incontrolHave anauthoritativeimageToughnessin the face of adversityWorklong hoursat the expense of family lifeBecommitted to workas first priorityManagers of both sexes must project an image of the authoritative manager. My research showsthat to be successful, women have to learn to tailor and adapt how they manage to the dominantmasculine culture. Rather than patenting a new management style, they must ‘manage like a man.’
FRAMES OF GENDER EQUITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGEFrame 1: ‘Fix the Women’Assumes that people are successful on theirown meritWomen’s lack of achievement is attributed tolack of experience

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Term
Summer
Professor
A>D
Tags
Management, Discrimination, diversity management

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