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oSomewhere during their sexual life, they learned involuntarily to associate strong, highly pleasurable sexual arousal with some sort of atypical sexual stimulus. oThe sexual learning process is further strengthened through operant conditioning, in which a voluntary behavior is learned because it is followed by a rewarding consequence, referred to as reinforcement. oFew events in life are more rewarding (reinforcing) than an orgasm. oFirst, a person learns to associate sexual arousal with objects or unusualactivities, and then those interactions are reinforced strongly with sexual pleasure and orgasm. oWoman who forgot to close her blinds undressing in a window across the street and he becomes sexually aroused as he watches, and he masturbated to orgasm. He has now acquired the paraphilia we call voyeurism. Biological theories oDerive from the assumption that something physiological has malfunctioned and is leading to the person’s abnormal and compulsive behaviors. oFocus primarily on imbalances in two biochemical systems hormones and neurotransmitters. oThe hormone hypothesis suggests that compulsive sexual behavior may be related to an overproduction of male hormones mainly testosterone
but other hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine have been implicated as well. oThe neurotransmitter serotonin which is known to be involved in various psychological disorders especially depression, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been connected to paraphilias as well. oSame medications have also been successful in treating nonsexual obsessive compulsive disorders oOne study measured levels of adrenaline in men with pedophilia (sexual attraction to children) and compared them to those of normal men.oThe researchers found significantly higher levels of the hormone in the pedophilia group in the three hours following the administration of an adrenaline enhancing agent. oThis suggests a biological foundation for pedophilia associated with the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers the release of adrenaline in highly emotional situations and may be overly active in pedophiles. Reconciling the three theoretical approachesoAny two or even all three approaches to explaining paraphilias may be combined into a more global, cohesive explanation. oA few psychologists would dispute that certain experiences in childhoodcause us to pay more or less attention to and react in more positive or negative ways to specific sexual events, activities, and situations in our adult life. These tendencies may in turn lead us to be attracted to, enjoy, and engage in a personally unique set of sexual behaviors (psychodynamic theory). oThe range of sexual associations is so great that for a minority of people the connections formed may be seen as bizarre within the culture (behavioral theory).