Physical Science 8th grade (1).pdf

3e students know that in solids the atoms are closely

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3.e. Students know that in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate; in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another; and in gases the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently. 3.f. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify elements in simple compounds. STANDARD SET 4. Earth in the Solar System (Earth Sciences) 4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution. As a basis for understanding this concept: 4.a. Students know galaxies are clusters of billions of stars and may have different shapes. 4.b. Students know that the Sun is one of many stars in the Milky Way galaxy and that stars may differ in size, temperature, and color. 4.c. Students know how to use astronomical units and light years as measures of distance between the Sun, stars, and Earth. 4.d. Students know that stars are the source of light for all bright objects in outer space and that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight, not by their own light. 4.e. Students know the appearance, general composition, relative position and size, and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids.
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386 STANDARD SET 5. Reactions Completed 5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept: 5.a. Students know reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties. 5.b. Students know the idea of atoms explains the conservation of matter: In chemical reactions the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are arranged, so their total mass stays the same. 5.c. Students know chemical reactions usually liberate heat or absorb heat. 5.d. Students know physical processes include freezing and boiling, in which a material changes form with no chemical reaction. 5.e. Students know how to determine whether a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. STANDARD SET 6. Chemistry of Living Systems (Life Sciences) 6. Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems. As a basis for understanding this concept: 6.a. Students know that carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms. 6.b. Students know that living organisms are made of molecules consisting largely of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur. 6.c. Students know that living organisms have many different kinds of molecules, including small ones, such as water and salt, and very large ones, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and DNA.
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