The part of the peripheral nervous system that acts

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the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system functioning largely below the level of consciousness , and controls visceral functions. [1] The ANS affects heart rate , digestion , respiratory rate , salivation , perspiration , pupillary dilation , micturition (urination), and sexual arousal . ANS innervation is divided into sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system divisions. The sympathetic division has thoracolumbar “outflow”, meaning that the neurons begin at the thoracic and lumbar (T1-L2) portions of the spinal cord. The parasympathetic division has craniosacral “outflow”, meaning that the neurons begin at the cranial nerves (CN 3, CN7, CN 9, CN10) and sacral (S2-S4) spinal cord. The sympathetic division (thoracolumbar outflow) consists of cell bodies in the lateral horn of spinal cord (intermediolateral cell columns) from T1 to L2. These cell bodies are GVE (general visceral efferent) neurons and are the preganglionic neurons. The parasympathetic division (craniosacral outflow) consists of cell bodies from one of two locations: brainstem (Cranial Nerves III, VII, IX, X) or sacral spinal cord (S2, S3, S4) ANS PSYCHOLOGICAL Activity of symphatetic: -mydiasis -dryness of skin & mucous membran -hyperemia of skin –increase blood pressure –constripation,diguria,decreased activity of lacrimatory salivatory,mucous producing gland –tremur –anxiety –euphoria Activity of parasymp: -myosis –intensive prespiration,lacrimation, salivation, -palness of kin –decrease BP,bradycardia –decrease breath rate –diarrhea,poliuria EYEBALL & URINARY Affection of parasymphatetic portion of eyeball: -internal ophtalmoplegia-dissaperance of pupillary response,no accomodation,mydriasis Aff.of symphat: in case of damage to C8-T1 centre,aff.of brainstem Claude Bernard Horner triad(ptosis,miosis,enoph) Irritation of symphatetic innervation of eyeball massive cephalic >Punfun-dupti syndrome:mydriasis,egzopthalmy Innervation of urination: starts in L1,L2 sympath;parasymp. S3-S5 True urinary incontents-total affection of L1,L2 permanent drop by drop urination;no control.palsy of sphincter Paradoxical ischurea-due to partial damage L1,L2 Urinary retention-affection of spinal cord above L1,L2 permanent hypertonus of sphincter MENINGEAL SYNDROME Etiology:acute:meningitis/encephalitis;subarachnoid,head injury,hematoma(subdural) chronic:fungal,hiv; also:neurotoxicity,alcoholism,chronić renal failure,brain edema Symptoms:headache,vomitting,no nausea,consciousness disorder,rash,petechias,position of pat. „hounting dog” Examination:-occipital nuchal rigity(can not touch sternum with his chin; -kernick sign(unable to extent his knee joint) –Brudzinsky sign:upper-head to sternum,flexion of legs; middle-press with fist in symphicis pubis & legs are flexing in knee joint; lower-if 7
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you are flexing one leg,another is flexing as well by itself; Comatous stage: Behtereves sign- tapping with finger zygomatous arch-patient show pain response.
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  • Winter '18
  • Jane doe
  • Facial nerve

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