Lecture 33 – Endocrine Physiology II

High blood ca when the blood calcium level rises

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High Blood Ca When the blood calcium level rises above the set point, calcitonin is released by the  thyroid Calcitonin effects bone and kidneys in opposite ways than those of the PTC and thus  lowers the level of the blood calcium Insulin and Glucagon Pancreas is a major endocrine gland but the hormone secreting cells make up only 1- 2% of its mass The remained of the pancreas secretes bicarbonate ions and digestive enzymes which  are secreted into the small intestine via the pancreatic duct Clusters of endocrine cells (islets of Langerhans) re scattered throughout the pancreas  cells produce glucagon Α  cells produce insulin Β Glucagon and inslin are antagonistic hormones that regulate blood glucose levels near  a set point High Glucose Insulin is released and lowers blood glucose Stimulates virtually all cells except those in the brain to take up glocuse from the blood Slows glycogen breakdown in the liver by inhibiting the conversion of amino acids and  glycerol to glucose Low Glucose Glucagon is released and effects the increase of blood glucose
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The liver is a key fuel processing center because onlt liver cells are sensitive to  glucagon As soon as excess glucose is bleared from the blood, glucagon signals liver cells to  increase glycogen hydrolysis Convert AA and glycerol to glucose Releases glucose back into the blood Adrenal Gland Located above the kidney Dual glands (cortex and medulla) Cortex ervied from the epithelial tissue accounts for 80% of the mass Medulla is derived from neural tissue Cortex layers Glomerulu  Secretes mineralocorticoids – mostly aldosterone Fasiculata Reticularis Glucocorticoids (cortisol) regulates stress responses, proteins, carbs, and lipid  metaboilism in a variety of tissues and blood glucose Sex hormones (androgens) Medualla chromaffin cells which secrete catecholamines E, NE, DOPA
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