Chapter 2 Terms Accuracy – The extent to which an experimental measure is free from error. Case Studies – A research method that involves the intensive examination of unusual people or organizations. Central tendency – A measure that represents the typical response or the behavior of a group as a whole. Confound – Anything that affects a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the experimental conditions of a study. Control Group – A comparison group; the participants in a study that receive no intervention or receive an intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated. Correlational Studies – A research method that examines how
variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them Cross-sectional studies – A research method that compares participants in different groups (e.g. young and old) at the same time Culturally sensitive research – Studies that take into account the role that culture plays in determining thoughts, feelings, and actions. Data – Objective observations or measurements. Dependent variable – In an experiment, the variable that is affected by the manipulation of the independent variable. Descriptive statistics – Statistics that summarize the data collected in a study. Descriptive studies research – A research method that involves observing and noting the behavior of people or other animals to provide a systematic and objective analysis of the behavior. Directionality Problem – A problem encountered in correlational studies; the researchers find a relationship between two variables, but they cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable. Experiment – A study that tests causal hypotheses by measuring and manipulating variables. Experimental Groups – Treatment groups; the participants in a study that receive the intervention. Experimenter Expectancy Effect – Actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the expectations of the observer. External Validity – The degree to which the findings of an experiment can be generalized outside the laboratory. Hypothesis – A specific prediction of what should be observed if a theory is correct. Independent variable – In an experiment, the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on the dependent variable. Inferential Statistics – A set of procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers. Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) – Groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well being of research participants. Internal Validity – The extent to which the data collected in a study address the research hypothesis in the way intended.