Other animals food source animals evolve mechanisms

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other animals’ food source animals evolve mechanisms to avoid being eaten leads to evolutionary niche (role in ecosystem) human cognition, language, & sociality lead to a cognitive niche
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1/29/19 4 What is culture? System of meaning Goals for children’s development and learning that provides Cultural Goals & Values for Children Many goals overlap… But goals can also differ… Cultural practices influence not just what we learn but also how we learn. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
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1/29/19 5 Cognitive development: is embedded in culture proceeds when guided through collaboration with others Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: Cognition is Embedded in Culture Individual development over a person’s life time Ontogenetic: Microgenetic: Changes over a short period of time Phylogenetic: Changes over evolutionary time Sociohistorical: Changes in one’s culture 4 Levels of Interaction with environment: Elementary Mental Functions Attention Sensation Perception Memory Present at birth Higher Mental Functions Sophisticated mental processes transformed by culture into Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: Cognition is Embedded in Culture
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1/29/19 6 Also called cognitive artifacts Artifacts = made by humans Methods of thinking Children internalize From interactions with others Tools of Intellectual Adaptation Two types: Physical (material) & Symbolic (mental) Tools of Intellectual Adaptation Tools of Intellectual Adaptation Example: Gendered toys
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1/29/19 7 Language Names & Numeracy Tools of Intellectual Adaptation Amazonian languages (Pirahã & Mundurukú) American English Chinese No number words for greater than 5 Eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen fifteen… twenty-one, twenty-two Ten-one, ten-two, ten-three Math with small quantities easily; if learn Portuguese, can do math with larger quantities
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