Pentagon leaders, and U.S. government leaders in general, believe that Pakistan’s desire to see an Afghan government “with primacy for the Pashtuns, and limited Indian influence,” motivates its leadership to allow insurgent sanctuaries to persist on its soil.61Recent Bilateral Diplomacy In addition to the several destabilizing developments of 2011 discussed above, U.S.-Pakistan relations have been negatively affected by two other notable issues. One area of contention has been freedom of travel for U.S. diplomats in Pakistan. Incidents in which such diplomats have been prevented from moving between cities reportedly have amounted to “official harassment” from a U.S. perspective, but Pakistani officials insist that requiring “No Objection Certificates” for Americans leaving Islamabad is neither new nor U.S.-specific.62Another irritant was the July 2011 revelation that two U.S. citizens of Pakistani origin had for many years been working illicitly on behalf of the ISI in an effort to influence U.S. Kashmir policy.6360White House Report on Afghanistan and Pakistan, September 2011. 61U.S. Department of Defense, “Report on Progress Toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan,” April 2012 at . 62“American Diplomats in Pakistan Under Pressure,” BBC News, September 8, 2011. 63The men came under federal indictment for failure to register as foreign agents. One of the accused remains at large in Pakistan, but the other, Virginia resident Ghulam Nabi Fai, was arrested for lobbying U.S. lawmakers and funneling campaign contributions to some in Congress over a 10-year period with at least $4 million in funds provided by the ISI. Fai, longtime director of the Kashmiri American Council—a Washington-based nonprofit group ostensibly dedicated to the cause of Kashmir self-determination—admitted to receiving funds from the ISI but insisted his group maintained independence from its viewpoint. The timing of his arrest, coming on the heels of Pakistan’s arrest of a doctor charged with aiding the CIA operation against Osama bin Laden, led some to conclude that Washington was sending a message to Islamabad. Fai subsequently pled guilty to conspiracy charges and was sentenced to two years in federal prison.