teacher [ˈtiː·tʃə] mansion [ˈmæn·ʃn̩] - Strong syllables have the following features: Longer in duration (vowel length) Louder in intensity (sound intensity) Higher pitch Having a peak with one of the FULL vowels (i.e. pure long and short vowels, diphthongs, triphthiongs) but not [ə i u]. Having a coda if the vowel is a short one. conquer [ˈkɒŋ·kə] - Weak syllables have the following features: Shorter in duration Not as loud as strong syllables Lower pitch Consisting of one of the following types of nucleus: High/Close front vowel [i]: in the general area of [i:] and [ɪ] . happy [ˈhæ·p i ] High/Close back vowel [u]: in the general area of [u:] and [ʊ] . thank you [ˈθæŋ·kj u ] Schwa [ ə ]: schwa is always associated with weak syllables in which the full form of vowel is reduced (not a true phoneme but an allophone of full vowels in weak syllables). attend [ ə ·ˈtend] carrot [ˈkæ·r ə t] support [s ə ·pɔ:t] photograph [ˈfəʊ· tə ·grɑːf] photographer [fə·ˈ tɒ ·grə·fə] 9 ENGL E810 Phonetics & Phonology for ELT Lecture Four
Syllabic consonants [ l̩ r̩ m̩ n̩ ŋ̩] : they act as the peak of a syllable. bottle [ˈbɒt·l̩] happen [ˈhæp·n̩] 4.4 Syllabic consonants - “Syllabic consonants can be identified as such by their relative length and in some instances by the lack of any audible vocalic release of the preceding [consonants]” (Clark and Yallop, 1995, p.68). - A segment without a vowel but a syllabic consonant should also be considered as a syllable. - Syllabic consonants are found in segments (which are weak syllables) where schwa [ə] is followed by latera l [l] , approximant [r] , nasals [n m ŋ] . In other words, syllabicity is an elision of schwa commonly found before sonorant consonants. - Listed below are different phonetic environments in which syllabic consonants are found: - Syllabic l : when / əl / is preceded by the alveolar consonants and the bilabial plosive /p/ • təl dəl nəl səl tɫ̩ dɫ̩ nɫ̩ sɫ̩ • pəl pl̩ E.g. medal *medəl medɫ̩ panel *pænəl pænɫ̩ - Syllabic r : common in rhotic accents (e.g. GenAm) but not in non- rhotic accents (e.g. RP) ər r • E.g. particular * [pərtɪkələr] [pr̩tɪkəlr̩] (Am) [pətɪkəlr̩] (Br) - Syllabic n : when /əl/ is preceded by the alveolar consonants and the bilabial plosive /p/ tən dən sən zən tn̩ dn̩ sn̩ zn̩ (except in the word-initial position) e.g. sudden *[sʌdən] [sʌdn̩] caution *[kɔ:ʃən] [kɔ:ʃn̩] happen *[hæpən] [hæpn̩] References: Clark, J., and Yallop, C. (1995). An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology (2 nd 10 ENGL E810 Phonetics & Phonology for ELT Lecture Four
edn.). Oxford: Blackwell. Crystal, D. (1991). A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics . Oxford: Blackwell. Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., Hultin, N., & Logan, H. (2001). An Introduction to Language (2 nd Canadian Edition ) . Canada: Harcourt. Language Files: Materials for an Introduction to Language and Linguistics. 9 th edition (April, 2004). Roach, P. (2001). English Phonetics and Phonology . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 11 ENGL E810 Phonetics & Phonology for ELT Lecture Four
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