Source there is comprehensive advice from branz at

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Source: There is comprehensive advice from BRANZ at: - buildings/remediation-detailing-solutions/ remediation-details-mould/ ORGANIC DUSTS Allergic respiratory responses Organic dusts include vegetable and animal bio-aerosols such as: > bark and mulch > mouldy hay > animal dander (dandruff!) > grain dust > silage > potting mix > animal droppings > urine spray/aerosolised faeces. Generally, health effects come from exposure to these plus pollen, fungi, fungal spores, mycotoxins, bacteria, endotoxins 3 and dust from livestock – skin, hair, feathers and excrement. Exposure can cause serious lung diseases from the allergic response. The diseases are known by names like: > organic dust toxic syndrome > occupational asthma > farmer’s lung > Legionnaires disease. Problem assessment Assessing the risk is difficult. Some people may develop a disease while others may not. Different people may take differing lengths of time to become reactive to the airborne contaminants. Any activity which could create airborne dusts, spores and liquid aerosols can lead to exposure: > disturbing mushroom compost producing, bagging, using potting mix > removing animal droppings > handling flapping chickens > feeding-out mouldy hay > seed dressing > cleaning grain silos > repairing leaky buildings. Control measures The primary aim is to reduce airborne contaminant levels. > With waste material, dampening before disturbing, but this would not be appropriate for some products like seeds. > In confined spaces (eg silos) avoiding entry by using other work practices is the preferred option. Appropriate protocols for confined space entry must be developed and adhered to if entry is essential. > Technical innovation which isolates the worker from the source, such as not needing to enter silos or seed cleaning plant. Personal protection is, as always, the last and least effective option. Cross Reference: 2.2.23 Page 41 3 Mycotoxins – toxins produced by fungi. Endotoxins – toxins from bacteria.
112 WORKSAFE NEW ZEALAND // OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH, SAFETY AND HSNO TOOLS 3.3.5 CONFINED SPACES ACOP FROM QUEENSLAND OXYGEN DEPLETION People entering a confined space may collapse and die if there is insufficient oxygen in the space to support life. Normal air has about 21% oxygen and adverse health effects may be noticed if oxygen levels fall below 19%. Effects may vary from person to person, but at levels of between 8–12% oxygen, rapid loss of consciousness and death can occur, unless the person is removed from the space and resuscitated. Reduced oxygen concentrations initially cause increased breathing and heart rates, muscle in- coordination, emotional changes, and fatigue. More severe conditions can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, convulsions, respiratory collapse and death. Examples of confined spaces are offal pits, iron-walled compartments (eg ships where rusting removes oxygen) feed silos and sewers. Sewers can also be a source of H2S.

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