Any adult or child in the family is malnourished

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any adult or child in the family is malnourished – weighted equally (each counts as one-sixth toward themaximum deprivation in the MPI)Education: two indicators with equal weight, 1) whether no household member completed 5 years of schooling, and 2) whether any school-aged child is out of school for grades 1 through 8 (each one-sixth of MPI).Standard of Living: equal weight for 6 deprivations (each counts as 1/18 toward the maximum): 1) lack of electricity; 2) insufficiently safe drinking water; 3) inadequate sanitation; 4) inadequate flooring;5) unimproved cooking fuel; 6) lack of more than one of five assets – telephone, radio, TV, bicycle, and motorbike.Interaction of the deprivations?Building index from household measures up to the aggregate measure (rather than using already-aggregated statistics), the MPI approach takes account of multiplied or interactive harm (complementarity) done when multiple deprivations are experienced by the same individual or familyMPI approach assumes an individual’s lack of capability in one area can be made up by other capabilities only to a degree – capabilities are treated as substitutes up to a point but then as complements.Computing the MPIMPI for the country (or region or group) is then computed A convenient way to express the resulting value is H*A -i.e., the product of the headcount ratio H (the percent of people living in multidimensional poverty), and the average intensity of deprivation A (the percent of weighted indicators for which poor households are deprived on average). adjusted headcount ratio HA is readily calculated HA satisfies some desirable properties. Important example: Dimensional monotonicity: If a person already identified as poor becomes deprived in another indicator,she is measured as even poorer – not the case using a simple headcount ratio.Multidimensional poverty tells a different story than income povertyThe results showed that knowing income poverty is not enough if our concern is with multidimensional poverty. Multidimensionally, Bangladesh is substantially less poor – but Pakistan substantially poorer – than would be predicted by income poverty Ethiopia is far more multidimensionally poor, and Tanzania much less so, than predicted by income poverty.
5.5Economic Characteristics of High-Poverty Groups Rural poverty Women and poverty Ethnic minorities, indigenous populations, and povertyWorkfareWorkfare, such as a Food for Work Program, represents a better policy than welfare when these criteria are met: -The program does not reduce incentives for the poor to acquire human capital and other assets -There are greater net benefits of the program’s work output -It is harder to screen the poor without a workfare requirement Poor workers have lower opportunity cost of time (so the economy loses little output when they work in the program)

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