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The political infighting and monopoly between the Ottoman officers led to a coup led by Iraqi military leaders who saw themselves as true symbols of IraqGeneral Sidqi, who gained fame after starting the Assyrian Massacre, led a coup, which led to 6 other coupsThe coups did nothing to change the status quo, but did establish the army as a guardian of Iraqi nationalismIraq During World War 2One part of political elites saw the war as a path to true independence, whereas another group wanted to retain ties to BritainThis led to the Anglo-Iraqi War of 1941, which forced people to take ties and further divided the population and elites
In 1939, Ghazi died and his infant son took power. Nuri was a close family friend and headed his 5thgovtHe was pro-British but military officers didn’t like that and he resigned in 1940Four officers staged a coup and put Rashid al-Gaylani into powerIn 1941, the Anglo-Iraqi war startedoThe first reason was that Rashid was pro-AxisoThe second reason was that Rashid denied the British to build a base in Basra, butthe British did so anyway and Rashid attackedThe British crushed Rashid’s government and put Iraq under military occupationNuri came back to power and crushed all of his political opponents during the warNuri’s reputation was tarnished because he took power through the British, similar to the Wafd PartyRashid Ali’s revolt symbolized the frustration at Britain’s continuing interference in Iraqi affairsThe young officers who toppled Nuri in 1958 claimed they were continuing Rashid Ali’s businessTransjordan: The Desert MandateTransjordan was an artificial state created to accommodate the interests of Britain and Abdallah in search of a throneTransjordan had little political history like Iraq. The Ottomans didn’t care about that regionBritain created this state to stop raids on French Sryia as well as bring order to the regionIn 1928, Transjordan was given limited independence, like Iraq and EgyptA constitution was adopted in 1928, but had little political affectoIt created a small legislative council that the King could controlAbdallah created the Desert Patrol to bring stability in the region and control the tribesComprised of local Bedouin who were trained and had intense loyalty to the monarchSince it was a tribal region, Abdallah had to bring bureaucrats from other places, mainly British and PalestiniansSince these bureaucrats didn’t have family or a base, there were no oppositional politics and Abdallah just bribed tribes or destroyed themAbdallah always schemed for more power and many Arab leaders distrusted him because of his loyalty to the British and willingness to work with ZionistsAbdallah recognized his debt to Britain and allied with Britain in WW2His Desert Patrol provided invaluable assistance to the BritishAbdallah also provided guidance during the Rashid Ali crisisIn 1946, Transjordan was granted full independence and Abdallah went from prince to KingRead conclusion