The political infighting and monopoly between the Ottoman officers led to a

The political infighting and monopoly between the

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The political infighting and monopoly between the Ottoman officers led to a coup led by Iraqi military leaders who saw themselves as true symbols of Iraq General Sidqi, who gained fame after starting the Assyrian Massacre, led a coup, which led to 6 other coups The coups did nothing to change the status quo, but did establish the army as a guardian of Iraqi nationalism Iraq During World War 2 One part of political elites saw the war as a path to true independence, whereas another group wanted to retain ties to Britain This led to the Anglo-Iraqi War of 1941, which forced people to take ties and further divided the population and elites
In 1939, Ghazi died and his infant son took power. Nuri was a close family friend and headed his 5 th govt He was pro-British but military officers didn’t like that and he resigned in 1940 Four officers staged a coup and put Rashid al-Gaylani into power In 1941, the Anglo-Iraqi war started o The first reason was that Rashid was pro-Axis o The second reason was that Rashid denied the British to build a base in Basra, but the British did so anyway and Rashid attacked The British crushed Rashid’s government and put Iraq under military occupation Nuri came back to power and crushed all of his political opponents during the war Nuri’s reputation was tarnished because he took power through the British, similar to the Wafd Party Rashid Ali’s revolt symbolized the frustration at Britain’s continuing interference in Iraqi affairs The young officers who toppled Nuri in 1958 claimed they were continuing Rashid Ali’s business Transjordan: The Desert Mandate Transjordan was an artificial state created to accommodate the interests of Britain and Abdallah in search of a throne Transjordan had little political history like Iraq. The Ottomans didn’t care about that region Britain created this state to stop raids on French Sryia as well as bring order to the region In 1928, Transjordan was given limited independence, like Iraq and Egypt A constitution was adopted in 1928, but had little political affect o It created a small legislative council that the King could control Abdallah created the Desert Patrol to bring stability in the region and control the tribes Comprised of local Bedouin who were trained and had intense loyalty to the monarch Since it was a tribal region, Abdallah had to bring bureaucrats from other places, mainly British and Palestinians Since these bureaucrats didn’t have family or a base, there were no oppositional politics and Abdallah just bribed tribes or destroyed them Abdallah always schemed for more power and many Arab leaders distrusted him because of his loyalty to the British and willingness to work with Zionists Abdallah recognized his debt to Britain and allied with Britain in WW2 His Desert Patrol provided invaluable assistance to the British Abdallah also provided guidance during the Rashid Ali crisis In 1946, Transjordan was granted full independence and Abdallah went from prince to King Read conclusion

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